Let’s start by looking at language for general explanations of complex points.我们先来看看在解释复杂观点的时候可以用到的英文说法。
1. In order to用法→ “In order to” can be used to introduce an explanation for the purpose of an argument.
例子→ “In order to understand X, we need first to understand Y.”
2. In other words用法→ Use “in other words” when you want to express something in a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point.
例子→“Frogs are amphibians. In other words,they live on the land and in the water.”
3. To put it another way用法→ This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of its significance.
例子→ “Plants rely on photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.” 植物依靠光合作用。换句话说，没有阳光它们就活不下去。
4. That is to say用法→“That is” and “that is to say” can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise.
例子→“Whales are mammals. That is to say, they must breathe air.”
5. To that end用法→Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to “in order to” or “so”.
例子→“Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.”
Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of “and” each time they want to add further information in support of a point they’re making, or to build an argument. Here are some cleverer ways of doing this.进一步解释一个观点或者是提出一个论点的时候，不要只知道用"and"，下面的这些表达都是高分表达噢。
6. Moreover用法→ Employ “moreover” at the start of a sentence to add extra information in support of a point you’re making.
例子→ “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in support of…”
7. Furthermore用法→This is also generally used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information.
例子→ “Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that…”
8. What’s more用法→ This is used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”.
例子→ “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.”
9. Likewise用法→ Use “likewise” when you want to talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned.
例子→ “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.”
10. Similarly用法→ Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”.
例子→ “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to the unfamiliar.”
11. Another key thing to remember用法→ Use the phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word “also”.
例子→ “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.”
12. As well as用法→ Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”.
例子→ “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.”
13. Coupled with
用法→ Used when considering two or more arguments at a time.
例子→ “Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…”
14. Firstly, secondly, thirdly…用法→ This can be used to structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other.
例子→ “There are many points in support of this view. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z.
15. Not to mention/to say nothing of用法→ “Not to mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of emphasis.
例子→ “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.”
When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence – “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting.在做对比论证的时候，除了however，还可以用下面这些词!
16. On the other hand用法→ Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion.
例子→ “The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that day.”
17. By contrast/in comparison
用法→ Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence.
例子→ “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.”
18. Then again用法→ Use this to cast doubt on an assertion.
例子→ “Writer A asserts that this was the reason for what happened. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.”
19. That said用法→ This is used in the same way as “then again”.
例子→ “The evidence appears to point to this conclusion. That said, much of the evidence is unreliable.”
20. Yet用法→ Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea.
例子→ “Much of scholarship has focused on this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect.”