Lathmaar Holi 2007年04月03日 00:14   英语周报大学版

  拉斯马尔好利节(2006-2007学年 第26期)

  Lathmaar Holi

  郑睿 译



  This colourful festival of Hindus, celebrated on the full moon day in the month of Phalguna, heralds the advent of spring. On this day people visit each others home, distribute sweets and apply gulal on each other signifying the colourful and happy spring time ahead. People throw colourful powder, coloured water on each other through pichkaris. Thandai, a drink made with cannabis, almonds and milk, is extremely popular on this day.

  The day before Holi is Chotti Holi or small Holi. The main ritual on this day centres around a bonfire ceremoniously kindled at the time of the rising moon. This suggests that the festival is also a celebration of the barley harvest. People start collecting firewood, cowdung and rubbish around a central pole in the locality many days in advance. On Chhotti Holi everyone comes together to light the fire. A pot of new barley seeds is buried under the pyre for roasting. These seeds are eaten after the fire is extinguished. The ashes from the Holy fire are also believed to provide protection against diseases.

  这个五彩缤纷的印度教节日,在颇勒窭努月(译者注:公历2、3月间)的望月日庆祝,它预示着春天即将到来。在这天,人们走亲访友,分发糖果,并相互涂抹七彩颜色粉,预示着即将来临的春天将是姹紫嫣红、十分幸福的。人们通过使用水枪互相扔洒各种颜色的粉末、颜料水。桑代, 是一种由大麻、杏仁及牛奶制成的饮料,在这天十分受欢迎。



  Myth I

  The origin of this custom can be found in the pranks of Krishna, who used to drench milkmaids in the village with water and play various other tricks on them. Holi festival is not celebrated in South India but a similar festival in the honour of the God of love, Kama, takes place there at the same time.



  Myth II

  Holi fire is regarded as a funeral pyre for it is understood to have destroyed Holika, a demoness. According to a legend Hiranyakshipu was a demon king. He wanted to avenge the death of his younger brother, who had been killed by Vishnu. He performed severe penance for many years to gain enough power to become the king of the three worlds. So intense was his penance that a smoke billowed from his head and the entire world was in the danger of annihilation. Worried, the Gods ran to Brahma for help. Brahma then appeared before Hiranyakshipu and the demon asked for a boon that he would be killed by neither man nor beast, neither indoors nor outdoors, neither on earth nor in heavens, neither during the day nor at night. Brahma granted him the boon.

  Believing that he was now invincible, Hiranyakshipu soon became pompous and ordered all his people to worship only him. The demon however, had a son named Prahlad who was ardent devotee of Vishnu. The evil demon decided to kill his own son but each attempt failed. The king then summoned his sister Holika who because of a boon was immune to fire. He prepared a pyre, lit it and asked Holika to sit on it, clutching Prahlad. Vishnu intervened to save Prahlad and evil Holika perished instead.

  This legend is relived on Chhoti Holi when the pyre is re-lit. Holika also signifies the dirt and filth that collects during the winter months. Hay and old rubbish is thrown into the bonfire.

  Holi at Mathura and Vrindavana is celebrated with great gusto for many days, as these were the places where Krishna spent most of his childhood.

  People get drenched with coloured water and consider it as a blessing of God. Holi festival in the village of Barsana 42km from Mathura is of special interest. Radha belonged to Barsana while Krishna hailed from Nandgaon. On Holi, men from Nandgaon come to Barsana to play holi with the women there. Women beat the men with sticks rather than applying gulal. This is called lathmar Holi.

  In Maharashtra and Gujarat, a grand procession of men soaked with coloured water walks through the streets shouting ‘Govinda ala re, Zara matki sambhal brijbala re!’ This refers to Lord Krishna’s habit of stealing butter and milk stored in terracota pots from people’s homes. As a child Krishna was very fond of milk and milk products. He would prowl into anyone’s house and steal or break pots of butter and milk. During a holi, a pot of buttermilk is hung high up in the street. Men forming a human staircase try to break this pot.

  In Bengal, holi is called Dol Yatra or the spring yatra. Idols of Radha and Krishna are placed on swings and devotees take turns to swing them. Women dance around the swing and sing devotional songs, as men spray coloured water on them.

  In Manipur, holi is a six-day festival. The traditional and centuries old Yaosang festival of Manipur amalgamated with Holi in the 18th century with the introduction of Vaishnavism. The entire theme of the festival is woven into the worship of Krishna and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Thabal Chongba, a popular Manipuri folk dance is associated with this festival. Instead of a bonfire, a hut is built and then later set ablaze. The next day boys play with gulal with the girls. And in return for playing with them, the girls extract money from the boys. Another significant feature of the festival of Manipur is the groups of devotees from different areas who gather at Shree Govindaji Temple in Imphal. Dressed in the traditional white and yellow turbans, they sing songs in the praise of Krishna and Chaitnaya Mahaprabhu.






  人们被颜料水所浸透,认为这是上帝的赐福。在距马图拉 42公里的巴尔萨纳村举行的好利节则具有特殊意义。克利须那神来自南德冈,而那时罗陀属于巴尔萨纳。在好利节,南德冈的男人来到巴尔萨纳,与那里的女人嬉戏。女人用木棒打男人,而不是涂抹七彩颜色粉。这被称为拉斯马尔好利节。

  在马哈拉施特拉邦与古吉拉特邦,浸透颜料水的男人们会举行盛大的游行,穿过街道,并且大声喊叫“Govinda ala re, Zara matki sambhal brijbala re!”这与克利须那神从人们家里的陶瓦罐中偷窃黄油与牛奶相关。克利须那神小的时候,十分喜欢牛奶与牛奶制品。他会潜入他人屋内,偷窃或者打碎黄油与牛奶罐。在好利节,一个黄油与牛奶罐会被高高悬挂在大街上。男人们组成人梯,试图打碎这个罐子。


  在曼尼普尔邦, 好利节是一个为期6天的节日。该节日在18世纪与传统的、具有几个世纪历史的曼尼普尔尧桑节合为一体,节日引入了毗湿奴崇拜概念。节日的整个主题是营造对克利须那神与柴坦亚•玛哈帕布的崇敬氛围。塔巴尔昌巴是与该节相关的、广受欢迎的曼尼普尔邦民间舞蹈。这里树起的是一间茅屋,而不是篝火,然后人们将茅屋点燃。第二天,男孩与女孩一同玩耍七彩颜色粉。作为与男孩们玩耍的回报,女孩们通常会向男孩收钱。该节在曼尼普尔的另一个重要特征是,来自不同地区的一批批信徒会聚集到位于英帕尔的什里高文塔姬寺庙。他们头戴传统黄白头巾,唱着称颂克利须那神与柴坦亚•玛哈帕布的歌曲。

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