http://www.sina.com.cn 2007年11月23日 11:04
Movie rating system
2007-2008 学年 第12期
Our listener question this week comes from Norway. Xiaoren Chen wants to know how movies are controlled in the United States.
Today, American filmmakers produce movies with few restraints about violence, sexuality and adult language. But this was not always the case.
The Motion Picture Association of America is the major movie organization that was first formed in nineteen twenty-two. The organization helps distribute movies internationally, decides on rating systems, and deals with public relations for the movie industry.
When it was first started by the Hollywood production studios, the organization was called the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America. The group was popularly called the Hays Office because of its director, Will Hays. This group developed the Motion Picture Production Code in 1930. The aim was for the film industry and not the government to decide what was morally acceptable to show in movies. The Hays Office examined each film before it could receive permission to be released.
The production code was very clear about issues including crime and sex. For example, movies could not show violent killings, methods of stealing, or illegal drug use. The code banned sex scenes, sexual relationships between people of different races, scenes of childbirth, and people not wearing clothing.
The Motion Picture Association finally ended the code in 1968 although movie makers had stopped following its rules many years before.
The group developed a new voluntary rating system that tells parents whether a movie is right for children. The ratings judge the level of violence, sexuality, and adult language. “G” (普遍级)movies are for people of all ages. “PG”(保护级) means parental guidance suggested. Some material may not be right for children.
“PG-13”(辅导级) means parents are strongly warned that some material may not be right for children under the age of thirteen. “R” mean restricted(限制级). Children under the age of seventeen must have a parent or adult guardian with them. And if a movie is rated “NC-17”(情色或暴力电影) it means no one seventeen or younger will be admitted.
The rating system has its critics. Some movie experts say the ratings warn more about sexual subjects than about extreme violence. Others say a rating can harm a movie’s financial success and ignore its artistic importance.
The band King Wilkie is made up of six young men who love traditional bluegrass music. Their second full-length album, “Low Country Suite,” mixes the sound of bluegrass with the influence of folk and country music. Faith Lapidus plays some of these songs.
That was “Crazy Daisy (Don’t You Fade on Me)” from “Low Country Suite.” Like many songs on this album, it explores feelings of love and loss. King Wilkie has said the album is about a young man finding his place in the world.
Ted Pitney and Reid Burgess formed King Wilkie in 2003 in Charlottesville, Virginia. They named the band after the favorite horse of Bill Monroe, who is considered the father of bluegrass music.
King Wilkie’s first album, “Broke,” was a collection of traditional bluegrass songs. The record earned them an Emerging Artist of the Year Award from the International Bluegrass Music Association.
For “Low Country Suite” the band wanted to push their musical boundaries. Reid Burgess says their goal was to free themselves and show different musical sides of the band. He says limiting their music style to bluegrass did not permit them to be as personal and expressive as they wanted to be.
Here is the playful sound of “Ms. Peabody.” It tells about a young man’s love affair with an older woman.
Although this record is not traditional bluegrass, the band still plans to play at bluegrass festivals and concerts. Reid Burgess says King Wilkie’s performances are still made for bluegrass stages. He says he loves the personalities, the community and the history of bluegrass shows. We leave you with the energetic beat of “Wrecking Ball.”