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http://www.sina.com.cn 2006/04/06 14:49  新浪考试


  1. 随着制造业和技术的发展,出现了另一个刺激贸易的因素,即国际专业化。

  With the development of manufacture and technology,there arose another incentive for trade, i.e.international specialization.

  2. 比较利益并不是静态的概念,一个国家可以通过自己的行动发展某种特定的比较利益。

  Comparative advantage is not a static concept. A country may develop a particular comparative advantage through its own action.

  3. 比较利益理论他成为现代国际贸易思想的基础。

  The idea of comparative advantage has become the cornerstone of mordern thinking on international trade.

  4. 在实际生活中,即使完全的专业化在经济上有利,也可能永远不会发生。

  In reality, complete specialization may never occur even though it is economically advantageous.

  5. 有形贸易指货物的进出口贸易,而无形贸易涉及的是国家间的劳务交换。

  The visible trade is the import and export of goods, and the invisible trade is the exchange of services between countries.

  6. 国家从事的贸易种类是多样的、复杂的,往往是有形贸易和无形贸易的混合。

  The kinds of trade nations engage in are varied and complex, often a mixture of visible and invisible trade.

  7. 在国际贸易中进出口双方都面临危险,因为总存在对方不履约的可能性。

  In international trade, both the exporter and importer face risks as there is always the possibility that the other party may fail to fulfill the contract.

  8. 许多国际贸易是通过汇票支付的,汇票是对银行或顾客的支付命令。

  A lot of international transactions are paid for by means of the draft, which is an order to a bank or a customer to pay.

  9. 就出口商而言,即期付款交单比远期付款交单有利,付款交单比承兑交单有利。

  So far as the exporter’s interest is concerned, D/P at sight is more favourable than D/P after sight, and D/P is more favourable than D/A.more favourable than D/A.


  In international trade it is almost impossible to match payment with the physical delivery of the goods.

  11. 要么因为信用证金额过大,要么因为对开征行不完全信任,出口商有时可能需要保兑的信用证。

  Either because the credit amount is too large, or because he does not fully trust the opening bank, sometimes the exporter may require a confirmed letter of credit.

  12. 在即期信用证情况下,提示汇票和正确无误的单据后便立即付款。

  In the case of sight credits, payment can be made promptly upon presentation of draft and impeccable shipping documents.

  13. 远期信用证显然要使用远期汇票。付款期限可为30天、60天甚至可长达180天。

  A usance credits obviously calls for a time draft, and the usance varies from 30,60 days to as long as 180 days even longer.

  14. 如果信用证可以由原受益人转让给另一个或几个人,那么这种信用证即为可转让信用证。原受益人称作第一受益人,接受转让的人称作第二受益人。

  A letter of credit is called transferable if it can be transferred by its original beneficiary to one or more parties. The original beneficiary is called the first beneficiary, and the party the credit is transferred to is called the second beneficiary

  15. 合同依法实施,未能履行合同义务的一方可能受到起诉,并被强制作出赔偿。

  A contract is enforceable by law, and the party that fails to fulfill his contractual obligations may be sued and forced to make compensation..

  16. 买方发出的询盘是为了获得拟定购商品的有关信息,对发出询盘的存在约束力。

  Enquiries made by the buyer are to get information about the goods to be ordered, and are no binding on the inquirer .

  17. 有效期对于确盘是必不可少的,在规定的时间之前或在被对方接受或拒绝之前确盘一直是有效的。

  The validity period is indispensable to a firm offer, that remains valid until a stipulated time or until it is accepted or rejected.


  A clean bill of lading refers to one that indicates the goods have been shipped in apparent good order and condition, which means it is deveid of any qualifying remarks about the packing and the outer appearance of the goods.


  In many cases, the buyer shall be notified to go through the inspection of goods at or before the time of shipment. Unless otherwise specified, the buyer is supposed to undertake the charges of inspection thus incurred for his own sake.


  The importer can sell the goods to a new buyer while they are being carried by means of negotiable shipping documents which are very convenient for us.


  The 1990 version of incoterms was the desire to adapt terms to the increasing use of electronic data inter change.


  There is no doubt that a society without an advanced transportation system remains primitive.


  As a society, we enjoy a richer and more leisurely life than we would be in a totally self-sufficient community.


  Another factor that has thrust transportation into the lime light in recent years is the growing utilization of just-in-time inventory systems on the basis of a production approach in which the firm maintains very small quantities of production inputs.


  Therefore, cargo insurance is an activity aiming at moving the burden of risk from the exporters and importers to the underwriters.


  An insurance contract without an insurable interest to support it is invalid and any claim made up it will not be entertained.


  The compensation payable generally includes the invoice cost plus freight, the insurance premium, and an agreed percentage, say 10%.

  28. 由于返向贸易经常是在欠发达国家和计划经济国家进行的,它一般是与这些国家的政策目标相互联系的。

  As counter trade often takes place in less developed economies and in centrally panned economies, it is often related with policy objectives in these countries.


  Another important difference is that a buyback deal usually stretches over a longer period of time than a counter purchase deal.



  The stock exchange has long served he needs of government industry and investors in providing the central market place for the issuing and trading of securities.


  Although the day-to-day running of corporate operations may be decentralized to the affiliate MNCs, the major decisions, such as those on corporate goals and new investments are made by the parent company.


  Compensatory and contingency financing facility is intended to enhance the fund’s support to member countries in their economic growth-oriented adjustment.


  The new international economic order is mainly a demand for more cash and trade concessions from the developed countries.

  补:211页 1题。 226页2、4两题






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