|2：EFFECTIVE QUESTION ING|
|http://www.sina.com.cn 2003/11/14 01:28 中图读者俱乐部|
There is no such a thing as a stupid question.
The important thing is never to stop questioning.
The fool wonders, the wise man asks.
You can tell whether a man is clever by his answers. You can tell whether a man is wise by his questions.
Dialogue 1:“What’s Up?”“怎么了？”
Scene 1: Closed-Question Example
Don: Hi, Suzie. What’s up?
Suzie: Well, I’mshavingsa problem with Jo again.
Don: Is she arguing with people again?
Suzie: Yes, she’sshavingsa difficult time getting along with the other people.
Don: Does she get to work on time?
Suzie: She gets to work on time. That’s not the problem.(Suzie appears somewhat frustrated and confused with Don’s question.)
Don: Does she work hard?
Suzie: She workes hard. That’s not the problem, either.
Don: So, it’s a personality problem?
Suzie: Well, some of the time. I mean, everybody has a hard time with Jo.
Don: Do you get along ... how about Sam?Suzie: Not really anybody. Anytime she has to do something for somebody else, you know, she can’t follow through, she has a hard time.
Don: Does she follow your orders?
Suzie: (surprised) Not as much as I’d like.
Don: Are you being clear when you give her orders, Suzie?
Suzie: ... I try to be ... I ...
Don: Sometimes you’re pretty vague?
Suzie: Probably that’s right. I probably expect her to do things on her own a little bit more than she’s able. She needs more direction ...
Don: Do you think you maybe need to be little bit more clear?
Suzie: Probably, but I wonder if she has a hard time hearing people.
Scene 2: Open-Question Example
Don: Hi, Suzie, what would you like to share?
Suzie: Hi, Don. I’mshavingsa problem with Jo, you know, the woman I hired to work for me.
Don: Oh, yeah. Could you tell me generally what’s been going on?
Suzie: Well, Jo’s just beenshavingsa hard time working with everybody, everybody on our staff. Jo talks incessantly and takes a lot of time. People are very busy and have to stop and listen to her. And, to give her instructions, I have to do it over and over again. It’s taking a great deal of time, and people find it offensive. You think she should control her behavior, don’t you?
Don: How do you feel about her, Suzie?
Suzie: Well, she’s a nice woman and she means well, but I have a hard time listening to her. She seems to talk so much about everything. I have lots to do and don’t have time to sit and listen to her all the time.
Don: So far, Suzie, it seems that one of the important things is that she isn’t getting along too well with others. She talks a lot and is intrusive. You have a hard time liking her. I guess that you feel she needs to control. Am I correct?
Suzie: Yes, that’s exactly accurate. (she smiles.)
Don: Now, could you give me a specific example of one situationswheresshe caused this type of reaction?
Suzie: Okay, she was assigned work with the R-and-D department, in which she had to do some purchase plans with the supervisor. She had her own ideas for the project. She wanted to change the design of the product, but she ended up arguing with the supervisor and caused a lot of dissension between the two groups.
Don: So, I am getting the picture, but before we go further, let’s focus on what she is already doing right. I hear you saying you really respect Jo’s ability. Could we stop for a moment and review the positives in the situation?
Suzie: Well, first of all, I really respect Jo’s talents. It’s quite a challenge to work with her, though. As I think about it, I probably haven’t sat down with her to tell her much I appreciate her strengths and contributions. I think Jo seems to need positive feedback.
There are basically two types of questions-open and closed questions.
Open questions are those that can’t be answered in a few words.They encourage others to talk and provide you with maximum information. Typically, open questions begin with what, how, why, or could, for example,“Could you tell me what bring you here today?”
Closed questions can be answered in a few words or sentences. They have the advantage of focusing on a topic and obtaining information, but the burden of guiding the talk remains on the speaker. Closed questions often begin with is, are, or do, for example,“Are you living with your family?”
Speakers can employ different kinds of questions to achieve their disired purpose.
开放式问题是指那些用三言两语难以回答的问题。这种问题鼓励别人谈话，最大限度地向你提供信息。这些开放式的问题通常以what, how, why, could开头，例如:“Could you tell me what bring you here today (您有何贵干)？”
封闭式问题可以用三言两语进行解答。它们的优点是能够针对某个特定的主题获取信息。但是仍然要求问题的提出者继续控制谈话。封闭式问题通常以is, are, do开头，例如:“Are you living with your family (你和父母住在一起吗)？”
“I was really upset by my parents. They entered my room when I was gone and searched the whole place. They suspect me of taking drugs.”
Response with open questions:
“Could you tell me what led your parents to the suspicion?”
Response with closed questions:
“How many times does that happen?”
The effective questioner, like the effective news writer, can benefit from this famous verse by Rudyard Kipling:
I keep six honest serving-men.
They taught me all I know.
Their names are what and why and when and how andswheresand who.
The interrogatives what, where, when, who, how, and why are used broadly throughout the process of communication because they lay a foundation of acquiring knowledge.
他们的名字是what,why, when, how, where, who。
Take the course of an interview for example, closed and open questions may both be used, in any combination. Closed questions can be answered with a simple“yes”or“no”or in a few brief words. Following are examples of closed questions:
How old are you?
Where do you live?
What schools did you attend?
Did you graduate in the top-ranking of your class?
Would you accept the salary offered?
What starting salary do you expect?
Open questions are broader in nature than closed questions and less restricting or structured; hence, they offer the interviewee more freedom with regard to the choice and scope of an answer. Following are examples of open questions:
Tell me about yourself.
How do you judge success?
Why did you choose to interview for this particular job?
What are your career goals?
Describe a time you failed.
What do you mean?
Would you explain that further?
Could you give me an example?
Answering the following questions with True or False
1. The fewer the questions asked, the better the research.
2. Divergent questions are questions that lead us down the wrong path.
3. Irrelevant questions can do nothing for our research.
4. Probing questions lead us to the periphery.
5. The questioning test is nothing more than an essential question.
6. Irreverent questions are offlimits to students.
7. Sorting and sifting questions allow us to manage our information.
8. With unanswerable questions we may never find the truth, but they help us to illuminate.
9. Provocative questions could stimulate creativity.
10. Clarification questions allow us to clarify meaning, to make out the horizon in a fog.
In the above 10 items, an effective questioner would most likely answer false to item 7 & 8, and true to the rest of the statements. The more accurate your answer corresponds with this, the more effective your questioning ability will be.
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