|http://www.sina.com.cn 2004/01/13 17:23 英语辅导报|
Sb. spends some money/time on sth..
e.g. She spent 50p on chocolate.
He spends about a third of his salary on drinking.
Note:使用该句型时,通常用介词on,但也可用介词for。例如:He will spend￡3,000 for/ on a new car.(他将花三千镑购买新车。)
Sb. spends some money/time(in) doing sth..
e.g. He spent a pleasant hour in talking with friends.
-How did you spend your summer vacation?你是如何度过暑假的?
-I spend it (in) reading and fishing.我看看书、钓钓鱼打发时间。
Note:口语中,通常省略介词in。再如: I used to spend my spare time going cycling.(我过去常常骑自行车兜风来消磨闲暇时间。)
It takes sb. some time /money to do sth..
e.g. It takes us thirty minutes to walk from here to the station.It takes thirty minutes for us to walk from here to the station.
It took him a lot of money to buy her a fur coat.It took a lot of money for him to buy her a fur coat.
Note:该句型中的it为形式主语,动词不定式短语作真正主语。"for sb. to do sth."为复合动词不定式结构。take后也可不接间接宾语sb.。例如:How long does it take to go there by air?(乘飞机到那儿要花多长时间?)
Sb. takes some time to do sth..
e.g. I took two hours to finish the composition.
They took three years to build the bridge.
Sth. takes(sb.)some time.
e.g. The writing of the article took me two days.
The flight from Tokyo to San Francisco takes nine hours.
Sth. costs sb. some money.
e.g. This computer cost me 5,000 yuan.
Note:cost接双宾语时,作"花费"解,若只接钱数时,作"价值"解。例如: This jacket costs 200 dollars.(这件夹克价值200美元。)
It costs (sb.)some money to do sth..
e.g.It will cost you 500 dollars to repair the car.
How much did it cost to build the bridge?
Note:该句型中的cost与take用法相同,可替换使用。注意,cost作"花费"解时,主语只能是事物或it,不能是人。比较:[误]I cost two yuan on the book/ to buy the book. [正]The book cost me two yuan.I spent two yuan on the book.(这本书我花了两块钱。)
Sth. costs (sb.) time, labour, life,...
e.g. Such a difficult job costs a lot of time and effort.
Careless driving will cost you your life.
Note: cost也可以接时间、劳力、性命等作宾语,作"耗费""(使)付出"解。cost虽可用及物动词,但无论哪种用法,都不可用于被动语态。比较:[误]They were cost much labour by the work. [正]The work cost them much labour.(这项工程耗费了他们大量劳动。)
Sb. pays some money for sth..
e.g. I paid 3,000 yuan for the mobile phone.
How much did you pay for the motorbike?
One pays sb./sth. (for sth.).
e.g. He's paid the bill.
She paid the driver and got out of the taxi.
Please pay the cashier for the meal.
One pays sb. some money for sth..
e.g. I paid him 100 yuan for the old bike.
How much did you pay the shopkeeper for fixing the TV set?
Note:pay接双宾语表示"付给某人多少钱",间接宾语也可用"to sb."表示。例如:Did you pay 100 yuan to him for the old bike?(你付给他100元买他那辆旧自行车了吗?)
One pays sb. some money to do sth..
e.g. He paid the boy 5 dollars to wash his car.
Note:pay作"花费"、"付款"解时,主语只能指人,不能指物。pay还可用作不及物动词,即"pay for sth.",意思是"付某物的款"。例如:I've paid for these books.(我已付了这些书钱。)表示"赔偿"时,要用"pay back"。例如:Let me pay him back.(让我赔他吧。) I'll pay back for his book.(我要赔偿他的书。)
①I spent ten yuan on the dictionary.
②I spent ten yuan buying the dictionary.
③It took me ten yuan to buy the dictionary.
④The dictionary cost me ten yuan.
⑤It cost me ten yuan to buy the dictionary.
⑥I paid ten yuan for the dictionary.
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