|Unit 5 The British Isles|
|http://www.sina.com.cn 2004/11/17 17:01 新浪教育|
They think it is just a matter of looking at maps carefully and remembering all the names of cities and provinces. 他们觉得那不过是仔细察看地图，然后记住所有省市名称的简单问题。
a matter of 意为“一个……的问题”，后接名词、代词等。
This is a matter of no account. 这是一件无关紧要的事。
It was a matter of life and death for them. 这对他们来说是生死攸关的问题。
as a matter of course 自然, 不用说, 照例
in matter of 与……有关
as a matter of fact 实际上, 不瞒你说, 确实, 事实是
no matter how/what/when/where/who 不管怎样/什么/何时/哪里/谁
What's the matter with...?……怎么啦?/……出了什么事?/……生了什么病?
It doesn't matter. 没关系。
Does it matter if...? 如果……要紧吗？
①I don't know ____ (小车怎么啦), but it won't start.
② ____ (无关紧要)what you wear — just as long as you come.
③It's ____ (只是时间问题) before he's forced to resign.
(Keys: ①what is the matter with the car ②It doesn't matter ③only a matter of time )
The Group of Eight (G8) consists of the eight richest countries in the world. 八国首脑会议是由八个世界上最富有的国家组成的。
consist of 意为“由……组成”、“构成”、“包括”，后接名词、动名词作宾语，不能用于被动语态结构。
The United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
His job consists of helping old people who live alone.
Substances consist of small particles called molecules.
(1)consist in 意为“存在于”。
The beauty of the plan consists in its simplicity. 这个计划妙就妙在简明扼要。
(2)consist with 意为“(与……)一致”、“并存”、“并立”。
Theory should consist with practice. 理论应与实践相一致。
①The team consists ____ four Europeans and two Americans.
②For her, happiness consists ____ watching television and reading magazines.
(Keys: ①of ②in)
Do island nations have advantage over other countries? 岛国比其它国家有优势吗？
You have the advantage of me. 你倒先认识我啦。(意为: 你认识我, 我还不认识你。)
Mary speaks good English, but she has an advantage because her mother is English.玛丽英语说得好，因为她有一个有利条件，她妈妈是英国人。
Is there any advantage in getting there early? 早到那里有什么好处吗？
常见短语：take advantage of 乘机利用，欺骗
get/win/gain/have an advantage over 胜过, 优于
turn out to one's advantage 变得对某人有利
①I think she takes advantage ____ his good nature.
②His height and reach give him a big advantage ____ other boxers.
(Keys: ①of ②over)
I don't think thats right... 我想……是不正确的。
若主句为I/We think (consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine) that...，其后的宾语从句含有否定词not时，一般要把否定词not转移到主句谓语上，构成否定转移。
I don't think this dress fits you well. 我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。
I don't think Jack's getting along well with his colleagues.
I don't suppose we'll meet again. 我想我们不会再见面了。
I don't think he will come, will he? 我认为他不会来，是吗？
I don't believe he is telling the truth, is he? 我确信他没说真话，是吗？
You don't think she will come, do you? 你认为她不会来，是吗？
He doesn't think Ann is fit for the job, does he?
① I don't think youve heard of him before, ____ ? (上海1990)
A. have youB. haven't youC. do ID. don't I
②I don't suppose anyone will volunteer, ____ ? (上海2001)
A. do IB. don't IC. will theyD. won't they
③ Mr.Black doesn't believe that his son is able to design a digital camera, ____ ?
A. is heB. isn't he
C. does heD. doesn't he
(Keys: ①A ②C ③C)
The fact that the mainland of Great Britain is made up of three kingdoms is still unknown to many. 仍然有许多人还不知道大不列颠是由三个国家组成这一事实。
(2)be made up of意为“由……组成”，强调整体与部分关系。
The medical team is made up of five doctors and ten nurses.
Water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen. 水是由氢和氧组成。
1. be made of 意为“由……做成”，该短语指成品中可以看出原材料。
These bottles are made of glass. 这些瓶子是用玻璃做的。
2. be made from 意为“由……做成”，指成品制成后，已看不出原材料。
Gas is made from coal. 煤气由煤制成。
3. be made out of 意为“由……做成”，该短语指做成整个成品的材料，常用于口语中，其意思是同be made of/from,但语气较之更强。
The skirt is made out of the cloth. 这裙子是用这种布制成的。
4. be made into意为“被做成……”，该短词指某种原料制成某种成品。
Stone can be made into bridges.石头可以造桥。
5. be made in意为“在……制造”，强调产地。
This kind of watch is made in China. 这种表是在中国制造的。
6. be made by意为“由……制造” 强调动作发出者。
This kind of new TV set is made by the factory.
1. The newly built bridge is made ____ iron and steel.
2. Bamboo can be made ____ pots, cups, chairs and so on.
(Keys: ①of ②into)
Within the UK for many years now, there has been a growing movement to make the most of its cultural diversity─to see the UK as it really is. 多年来，在英国国内，一个开发多种文化——正视英国真实现状的运动正在蓬勃发展中。
(1)make the most of意思是“充分利用”，相当于make full use of。
I have only a short holiday, so I have to make the most of it.
Susan made the most of all her spare time to practise playing the piano.
(2)UK是The Unite Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland的缩写，意为“大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国”。英语中类似的缩写词很多。
WTO=World Trade Organization 世界贸易组织
WHO=World Health Organization 世界卫生组织
UFO=Unidentified Flying Object 不明飞行物
BBC=British Broadcasting Corporation英国广播公司
ABC=American Broadcasting Corporation美国广播公司
VOA=Voice of America美国之音电台
CCTV=China Central Television中国中央电视台
TOEFL=Test of English as a foreign language托福考试
NATO=North Atlantic Treaty Organization 北大西洋公约组织
The largest island is called Britain, which is separated from France by the English Channel, which at one point is only 20 miles wide. 最大的岛叫不列颠岛，英吉利海峡将其与法国分开。海峡最窄处仅有20英里宽。
(1)本句中含有两个非限制性定语从句，其先行词分别是Britain和the English Channel。
Look, the two boys are fighting. Lets go and separate them.
We talked until midnight and then separated. 我们谈到午夜才分手。
(3)at one point 意思是“在……某处(特定的地方)；一度”，point有时可用复数。
Guards had been posted at several points around the perimeter.
At one point I thought she was going to refuse, but in the end she agreed.
Let's divide these books into ten parts. 我们把这些书分成十份吧。
A fence separated the cows from the pigs. 围栏把奶牛和猪分开。
They have gone to separate places. 他们去了各不相同的地方。
The children sleep in separate beds. 孩子们分别睡在各自的床上。
①As we joined the big crowd I got ____ from my friends. (NMET2001)
A. separatedB. sparedC. lostD. missed
②It seems difficult to ____ “hurt” from “injure” in meaning. (上海2002春)
A. judgeB. tellC. divideD. separate
(Keys: ①A ②B)
To the southeast of Britain lie the Channel Islands. 不列颠东南是海峡群岛。
(1) 这是一个完全倒装句，正常的语序为：The Channel Islands lie to the southeast of Britain.
(2) 句首是表示地点的介词词组作状语或者是 here, there, in, out, up, down, away, back, now, then等副词时，主语是名词，常用完全倒装结构。
Away went the crowd one by one. 人们一个一个地离去。
Around the house are rows of trees, which were planted around 100 years ago.
Here he comes. 他来了。
Guangdong lies to the south of Hubei. 广东在湖北以南。
Guangdong lies to/on the south of Hunan. 广东在湖南以南。(既可以用 to表示方位，又可用on表示两省接壤)
Shanghai lies in the east of China. 上海位于中国的东部。
Nanjing lies on the Yangtze River. 南京位于长江之滨。
Wales lies to the west of England. 威尔士位于英格兰的西边。
East of the village stands a small lake. 村东有一个小湖。
South of the city lies a big steel factory. 城南有一个大型钢铁厂。
①Jilin city is ____ the northeast of China.
②Japan lies ____ the east of China.
③China faces the Pacific Ocean ____ the east.
(Keys: ①in ②to ③on)
The climate of the British Isles is mild with a lot of rain. 英伦诸岛的气候是温和多雨。
The climate of China is very enjoyable in spring. 中国春天的气候宜人。
When we retire, we're going to move to a warmer climate.
The weather has been fine for several days. 一连好几天都是晴天。
You should wrap up your neck in this cold weather.
The result of so much French influence was that the English language ended up with many French words such as table, animal and age. 法语巨大影响的结果是英语中出现许多像table, animal和age的法语单词。
(2)end up with... 意思是“以……而结束”。
The party ended up with the singing of a song. 聚会最后以唱首歌而结束。
His first experiment ended up with failure. 他的第一次试验以失败而告终。
My teacher's influence made me study science at college.
A good teacher usually has a huge amount of influence over his students.
such as 和for example这两个短语都可以表示“例如”，但含义及用法不同：
Many people here, for example, John, would rather have coffee.
There are many kinds of pollution, for example, noise is a kind of pollution.
English is spoken in many countries, such as Australia, Canada and so on.
The smaller islands, the Isle of Man and the Channel islands are neither part of the United Kingdom nor independent. 较小的岛屿即马恩岛和海峡群岛既不属于英国也不是独立的。
We had neither money nor food. 我们既没钱，又没食物。(连接两个宾语)
They neither smoke nor drink. 他们既不吸烟，也不喝酒。(连接两个谓语)
He was neither clever nor stupid, but good enough at his work.
Neither the Scots nor the Welsh regard themselves as English.
Neither the twins nor James knows how to spell the word.
(1)not...but...(不是……而是), not only...but also...(不但……而且), either...or...(或者……或者)等并列连词连接并列主语时，谓语应与邻近的主语保持一致。
Not you but your father is to blame. 不是你，而是你父亲该受责备。
Not only you but(also) he is wrong. 不仅你错了，他也错了。
Either you or I am to do the work. 不是你就是我来做这项工作。
(2)as well as(也；而且), together with(和……一起), rather than(不是), except(除了)等若出现在主语位置上，谓语应与其前边的主语保持一致。
I as well as they am ready to help you. 不仅他们，我也愿意帮助你。
A woman with two children has come. 一位妇女带着两个孩子来了。
① ____ Mr.White ____ his sister are coming to our help.
A. Either; orB. Neither; nor
C. Not only; but alsoD. Both; and
②The movies star as well as a lot of fans ____ photographed a lot by TV stations and newspapers.
A. wereB. wasC. hadD. has
(Keys: ①D ②B)
They realize that it is of great value to record and teach them to the younger generation. 他们意识到记录这些语言并将它们传给后代是十分宝贵的。
(2) of great value的意思是“非常有价值的”。
英语中of great help/value/use/interest/importance相当于very helpful/valuable/useful/interesting/important，great可以由little, much, no, any等词代替，表示相应含义；of还可以与age, size, colour, height, shape, weight等名词连用，表示具有某方面的特征。
A college education is of great value in one's life.
We consider his work to be of great importance. 我们觉得他的工作很重要。
The two boxes are of different colours. 这两个箱子颜色不一样。
①We don't think there is anything of interesting in your designs.
②The meeting held in Beijing last month is great importance.
③I want three shirts with the same size but of different colours.
(Keys: ①interesting→interest ②great→of great ③with→of )
Generally speaking, the upper classes don't have a clear idea of the common peoples lives. 一般说来，上层阶级并不十分清楚老百姓的生活。
Generally speaking, young women like it better than older women do.
(2)common, ordinary与 usual的用法区别：
Colds are common in winter. 冬天感冒是很普通的。
They can treat most of the common diseases. 他们可以治疗大多数的常见病。
He is a hero, but a common man. 他是位英雄，但也是个普通人。
His father is an ordinary worker. 他父亲是一个平凡的工人。
That morning he came earlier than usual, for it was not an ordinary day.
It is usual with him to go to the office on foot. 他习惯步行去办公室。
Tea is considered to be the usual drink of British people.
Turning to the left, you will find the shop. 向左拐，你就会发现那家商店。
Having had supper, he went out for a walk. 吃过晚饭，他出去散散步。
to tell the truth(如实说)，to begin with(首先)，to make things worse(更糟糕的是)等短语常用作插入语，其逻辑主语可以与句子主语不一致。
Supposing it rains what shall you do? 假使下雨，你会怎么办呢？
To tell you the truth, your plan is very attractive, but it doesn't seem to be practical.说实话你的计划很吸引人,不过似乎行不通。
We can't go. To begin with, it's too cold. 我们不能去。首先，天太冷了。
①Just after putting away the dishes, ____ .(上海1997)
A. the doorbell rang loud
B. Nancy heard the doorbell ring
C. someone knocked at the door
D. the doorbell was rung
②Finding her car stolen, ____ .(上海2001)
A. a policeman was asked to help
B. the area was searched thoroughly
C. it was looked for everywhere
D. she hurried to a policeman for help
③ ____ her small age, the work has really been well done.
A. To considerB. Considering
C. ConsideredD. Having considered
(Keys: ①B ②D ③B)
Don't judge a person on the basis of appearance. 不要以相貌取人。
Who will judge the next case? 谁将审理下个案子?
Can you judge which shoes are best? 你能鉴定哪双鞋子最好吗?
We judged it better not to make a hasty decision.
(2)on the basis of意为“以……为根据, 在……基础上”，basis意为“基础”、“基本原理”、“主要成分”，其复数形式是bases。
What is the basis of your opinion? 你的观点的根据是什么？
The basis of this drink is orange juice. 这种饮料的主要成分是橘子汁。
Decisions were often made on the basis of incorrect information.
The cathedral is famous for the height of its tower, which is without doubt the highest and the most handsome in England, being from the ground 410 feet. 大教堂因它的塔高而闻名于世。该塔毫无争议地成为英国最高、最漂亮的塔，塔顶距地面410英尺高。
(1) which引导非限制性定语从句，being from the ground 410 feet是现在分词短语作伴随状语。
The river, which flows through London, is called the Thames.
He changed his mind, which made me very angry.
(2)without doubt 意为“无疑地”、“毫无疑问地”，在句中作状语。
She is without doubt the best student I have ever taught.
This is my handsome house. 这是我满意的新房。
He is a handsome young man. 你是个英俊的年轻人。
The woman is handsome, but not beautiful. 那位女子五官端正，但并不美丽。
What a pretty dress your sister is wearing today! 你妹妹今天穿的衣服多漂亮!
①He looks ____ and healthy.
②You did a ____ thing in helping those poor children.
③The sofa was covered in very ____ flowery material.
(Keys: ①handsome ②beautiful ③pretty/beautiful)
He approached Salisbury from the east. 他从东部到达索尔兹伯里。
We approached the museum. 我们走近博物馆。
He approached the new job with enthusiasm. 他满怀热情地去干新的工作。
(2) approach 名词，意为“靠近”、“接近”、“途径”、“方法”。如：
The approach of winter brings cold weather. 冬天快到了，天气要转冷了。
All approaches were blocked. 所有道路都堵塞了。
(1) It is ＋名词＋从句
It is a fact that English is being used by more and more people.
It is common knowledge that the earth moves around the sun.
(2) It is ＋形容词＋从句
It is natural that children love their parents. 很自然孩子们喜欢自己的父母。
It is strange that she didn't turn up at the meeting.
(3) It is ＋不及物动词＋从句
It seems that she knew nothing about the news. 似乎她对这则消息一无所知。
It happened that we met on a bus to the hospital.
(4) It is＋过去分词＋从句
It is reported that three people got lost in the flood.
It has been proved that the driver is not related to the accident.
She told me (that) she would accept my invitation.
I am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake. 恐怕是我弄错了。
I thought it very impossible that she would get married soon.
They took it for granted that the singer was coming.
The reason is that he missed the early bus. 原因是他错过了早班车。
The problem is that we don't have enough money now.
同位语从句的先行词多为fact, belief, news, idea, thought, question, reply, possibility, hope, problem, remark, report等名词，that从句是对先行词的具体内容作进一步的解释说明，that不能省略。
We expressed the hope that they would come to visit China again.
There is no doubt that the price of wheat will go up.
1. Along with the letter was his promise ____ he would visit me this coming Christmas. (上海2004春)
A. whichB. thatC. whatD. whether
2. ____ made the school proud was ____ more than 90%of the students had been admitted to key universities. (上海2003春)
A. What; becauseB. What; that
C. That; whatD. That; because
3. ____ fashion differs from country to country may reflect the cultural differences from one aspect. (上海2002春)
A. WhatB. ThatC. ThisD. Which
4. There's a feeling in me ____ we'll never know what a UFO is — not ever. (上海2002)
A. thatB. whichC. of whichD. what
5. It worried me a lot ____ her hair was turning grey. (MET1992)
A. whileB. thatC. ifD. for
(Keys: 1─5 BBBAB)
1. No one in the department but Tom and I ____ that the director is going to resign. (上海 2004春)
A. knowsB. know
C. have knownD. am to know
【点拨】选A。本句真正的主语是No one而but Tom and I是介词短语，故谓语应与No one一致，用单数。
2. Papermaking began in China and from here it ____ to North Africa and Europe. (上海 2003春)
A. spreadB. grew
C. carriedD. developed
3. Many students signed up for the ____ race in the sports meeting to be held next week. (上海 2003春)
A. 800meterlongB. 800meterslong
C. 800 meter lengthD. 800 meters length
4. She thought I was talking about her daughter, ____ , in fact, I was talking about my daughter. (NMET 1994)
A. whomB. where
C. whichD. while
5. The world is ____ seven continents and four oceans. (MET1991)
A. made up ofB. made out of
C. made fromD. made in
【点拨】选A。根据 “世界由七大洲和四大洋组成。”句意得知应用be made up of来表示整体与部分关系。
1. —I believe weve met somewhere before.
—No, ____ .
A. it isn't the sameB. it can't be true
C. I don't think soD. I'd rather not
2. Summer in ____ north of China is for ____ most part dry and sunny.
A. the; the B. /; a C. the; / D. /; /
3. We should be aware of the fact ____ rich countries are becoming richer while poor countries are becoming poorer.
A. whichB. thatC. whatD. where
4. ____ , the northerners are keen on dumplings while the southerners are fond of rice.
A. In commonB. In total
C. In generalD. In particular
5. Do you think the young man Miss Alice is shaking hands with ____ , Mary?
A. prettyB. beautiful
C. lovelyD. handsome
6. ____ in the United States, St Louis has now become the 24th largest city.
A. Being the fourth biggest city
B. It was once the fourth biggest city
C. Once the fourth biggest city
D. The fourth biggest city it was
7. A “Walkman” allows you to listen to your choice of music, and drowns out disagreeable loud noises ____ in American cities.
A. commonB. usual
C. ordinaryD. various
8. ____ plants and animals deep in the ocean, scientists may find a cure for some of our most serious human diseases.
A. To studyB. By studying
C. StudyingD. Having studied
9. —What happened to you on your way back to the hotel last night?
—I lost my way in complete darkness and, ____ things worse, it began to pour.
A. makingB. to make
C. having madeD. made
10. The residents, ____ had been damaged by the fire, were given help by the Red Cross.
A. all of their homesB. all their homes
C. whose all homesD. all of whose homes
Everybody has one of those days when everything goes wrong. This is what happened to Harry.
One morning, he got up very 11 because he had forgotten to 12 up his alarm clock. He 13 to shave quickly and cut himself. When he got 14, he got blood all over his 15, so he had to find another one. The 16 other shirt that was 17 needed ironing. While he was 18 it, there was a knock at the door. It was the man to 19 the meter. He showed him where the meter was.After he paid the gas 20 and showed the man out, he found the iron had 21 a hole in his shirt. So he had to 22 the one with the blood on it 23. By this time it was very late, so he 24 he couldnt go to work by bus. He 25 for a taxi to take him to work. The taxi arrived and Harry 26 in.
In another part of the town, a man had killed a woman with a knife and was seen to run away in a 27. When Harrys taxi stopped outside his office, a policeman 28 to be standing there. He saw the blood on Harrys shirt, and took him to the police station. He was 29 till 3 oclock p.m.before the police was sure that he was not the man they 30. When he finally arrived at the office at about 4, his boss took a look at him and told him to go away and find another job.
11. A. fastB. lateC. worriedlyD. nervously
12. A. setB. sendC. hangD. wind
13. A. triedB. hopedC. managedD. wished
14. A. wornB. woundedC. dressedD. damaged
15. A. coatB. shirtC. sweaterD. jacket
16. A. veryB. similarC. differentD. only
17. A. whiteB. prettyC. blueD. clean
18. A. washingB. cleaningC. brushingD. ironing
19. A. readB. mendC. examineD. test
20. A. moneyB. feeC. billD. charge
21. A. burntB. madeC. lightedD. fired
22. A. putB. wearC. changeD. choose
23. A. at allB. after allC. first of allD. above all
24. A. doubtedB. wonderedC. discoveredD. decided
25. A. lookedB. wishedC. searchedD. telephoned
26. A. gotB. satC. steppedD. seated
27. A. carB. hurryC. taxiD. fear
28. A. seemedB. happenedC. appearedD. proved
29. A. heldB. caughtC. keptD. left
30. A. metB. neededC. arrestedD. wanted
Valencia is in the east part of Spain. It has a port on the sea, two miles away on the coast. It is the capital of a province that is also named Valencia.
The city is a market centre for what is produced by the land around the city. Most of the citys money is made from farming. It is also a busy business city, with ships, railways, clothes and machine factories.
Valencia has an old part with white buildings, coloured roofs, and narrow streets. The modern part has long, wide streets and new buildings. Valencia is well known for its parks and gardens. It has many old churches and museums. The University in the centre of the city was built in the 13th century.
The city of Valencia has been known since the 2nd century. In the 8th century it was the capital of Spain. There is also an important city in Venezuela (委内瑞拉)named Valencia.
31. From the text, how many places have the name Valencia?
A. One.B. Two.C. Three.D. Four.
32. What is the main difference between the two parts of the city?
A. The colour of the buildings.
B. The length of the streets.
C. The age of the buildings.
D. The colour of the roofs.
33. When was Valencia the most important city in Spain?
A. 2nd century.B. 8th century.
C.13th century.D. 20th century.
34. What is Valencia famous for?
A. Its seaport.B. Its University.
C. Its churches and museums.D. Its parks and gardens.
35. The main income of the city of Valencia is from its ____ .
A. marketsB. businessC. factoriesD. farming
One summer night, Henry was sleeping in his room41 ____ .
when suddenly he woke up and sensed that something42 ____ .
unusual. He looked out of the window and finding a43 ____ .
store nearby on the street was in fire. He immediately 44 ____ .
shouts at the top of his voice “Fire! Fire! Help!” He45 ____ .
phoned 119 at once and then went out to put out fire.46 ____ .
but it was very big a fire that he couldn't put it out47 ____ .
by himself. Lucky enough, a lot of neighbors came out48 ____ .
and soon firefighters arrived. The fire was finally put down49 ____ .
and when the firefighters praised Henry his quick action,50 ____ .
he smiled, feeling very pleased.
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