http://www.sina.com.cn   2010年05月07日 11:18   新浪教育

  二、考研阅读理解(2010年考研阅读理解Part A Text 1)

  Of all the changes that have taken place in English-language newspapers during the past quarter-century, perhaps the most far-reaching has been the inexorable decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage。

  It is difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under the age of forty to imagine a time when high-quality arts criticism could be found in most big-city newspapers. Yet a considerable number of the most significant collections of criticism published in the 20th century consisted in large part of newspaper reviews. To read such books today is to marvel at the fact that their learned contents were once deemed suitable for publication in general-circulation dailies。

  We are even farther removed from the unfocused newspaper reviews published in England between the turn of the 20th century and the eve of World War II, at a time when newsprint was dirt-cheap and stylish arts criticism was considered an ornament to the publications in which it appeared. In those far-off days, it was taken for granted that the critics of major papers would write in detail and at length about the events they covered. Theirs was a serious business, and even those reviewers who wore their learning lightly, like George Bernard Shaw and Ernest Newman, could be trusted to know what they were about. These men believed in journalism as a calling, and were proud to be published in the daily press. "So few authors have brains enough or literary gift enough to keep their own end up in journalism," Newman wrote, "that I am tempted to define ‘journalism’ as ‘a term of contempt applied by writers who are not read to writers who are’."

  Unfortunately, these critics are virtually forgotten. Neville Cardus, who wrote for the Manchester Guardian from 1917 until shortly before his death in 1975, is now known solely as a writer of essays on the game of cricket. During his lifetime, though, he was also one of England’s foremost classical-music critics, and a stylist so widely admired that his Autobiography (1947) became a best-seller. He was knighted in 1967, the first music critic to be so honored. Yet only one of his books is now in print, and his vast body of writings on music is unknown save to specialists。

  Is there any chance that Cardus’s criticism will enjoy a revival? The prospect seems remote. Journalistic tastes had changed long before his death, and postmodern readers have little use for the richly upholstered Vicwardian prose in which he specialized. Moreover, the amateur tradition in music criticism has been in headlong retreat. (429 words)

  1. It is indicated in Paragraphs 1 and 2 that

  [A] arts criticism has disappeared from big-city newspapers。

  [B] English-language newspapers used to carry more arts reviews。

  [C] high-quality newspapers retain a large body of readers。

  [D] young readers doubt the suitability of criticism on dailies。

  2. Newspaper reviews in England before World War II were characterized by

  [A] free themes。

  [B] casual style。

  [C] elaborate layout。

  [D] radical viewpoints。

  3. Which of the following would Shaw and Newman most probably agree on?

  [A] It is writers’ duty to fulfill journalistic goals。

  [B] It is contemptible for writers to be journalists。

  [C] Writers are likely to be tempted into journalism。

  [D] Not all writers are capable of journalistic writing。

  4. What can be learned about Cardus according to the last two paragraphs?

  [A] His music criticism may not appeal to readers today。

  [B] His reputation as a music critic has long been in dispute。

  [C] His style caters largely to modern specialists。

  [D] His writings fail to follow the amateur tradition。

  5. What would be the best title for the text?

  [A] Newspapers of the Good Old Days

  [B] The Lost Horizon in Newspapers

  [C] Mournful Decline of Journalism

  [D] Prominent Critics in Memory



  第3题是人物观点题,答案是[D],类似[D]的信息可以从第3段最后一句的So few authors …中找到。




  相同点:GMAT文章后的第4题与2010考研Text 1后面的第3题均属人物观点题;各自的第5题均为全文主旨题。

  不同点:GMAT的1、2、3题分别为逻辑结构题、类比推理题和逻辑框架题;而2010考研Text 1后面的1、2、4题均属细节理解题。2010年20道阅读理解题中只有一道(31题)是逻辑结构题,典型的推理判断题一道也没有,细节理解题的难度又特别大、缺乏区分度,以至造成整个阅读理解Part A试题信度和效度的缺失。由此清楚反映出双方命题专家所持的不同的命题指导思想:美国GMAT命题专家重视考核考生的抽象思维能力、宏观把握语篇结构与语段结构的能力和类比推理能力,因此题型中逻辑结构题、类比推理题和逻辑框架题占的比例较大;而2010考研命题专家则侧重考核考生对事实性细节的理解能力,所以类比推理题和逻辑框架题一道也没有。当然,仅从一篇文章后的五道题的类型对比很难得出全面的结论,但从一个侧面却可以窥视两者之间在命题思路方面的差异。



  21. In the opening paragraph, the author introduces his topic by

  [A] posing a contrast。

  [B] justifying an assumption。

  [C] making a comparison。

  [D] explaining a phenomenon.                          [逻辑框架题]

  30. The author associates the issue of global warming with that of smoking because

  [A] they both suffered from the government’s negligence。

  [B] a lesson from the latter is applicable to the former。

  [C] the outcome from the latter aggravates the former。

  [D] both of them have turned from bad to worse.           [逻辑框架题]

  32. By referring to the limbic system, the author intends to show

  [A] its function in our dreams。

  [B] the mechanism of REM sleep。

  [C] the relation of dreams to emotions。

  [D] its difference from the prefrontal cortex.              [逻辑结构题]

  40. According to the last paragraph, “paper plates” is to “china” as

  [A] “temporary” is to “permanent”。

  [B] “radical” is to “conservative”。

  [C] “functional” is to “artistic”。

  [D] “humble” is to “noble”.                           [细节类比题]




  注:GMAT是 Graduate Management Admission Test (管理类研究生入学考试)的缩写形式,是美国教育考试服务处(EST)负责的考试之一。

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