|http://www.sina.com.cn 2004/06/25 13:44 英语辅导报|
Part I Word Guessing
Directions: Read the following sentences or paragraphs and try to guess the meaning of the bold words by using context clues.
1. A homograph is a word that has the same spelling as another, but is different in meaning, origin or pronunciation.
2. A hypothesis is a guess, often a scientific guess, in the form of generalization or an explanation.
3. Our environment is continuously changing , our values are changing as incessantly as our environment.
4. Tom enjoys talking, and he is the most loquacious of all the boys in the class.
5. During the concert the audience was quiet, but afterward the crowd became boisterous.
6. Unlike her gregarious sister, Jame is a shy, unsociable person who does not like to go to parties or to make new friends.
7. My first impression of Tom was really no good. He did his homework haphazardly. In a short essay of 500 words, there are 30 spelling mistakes.
8. Phobias, such as fear of heights, fear of water, or fear of crowds can be eliminated through conditioning.
9. Another problem of American's youth is pregnancy among young women. In other words, each year one million teenagers become mother-to-be.
10. Mary felt perturbed, that is, she was greatly disturbed by her sister's action.
11. Because of difficulties in getting a visa, we had to relinquish the idea of visiting America.
12. Mr. Jones is so phlegmatic that he never gets excited about anything.
13. Dr. Gerenz is recognized as one of the founders of ethology, the study of animal behavior.
14. Early records were made of shellac, a thick, heavy material which breaks easily.
15. Some animals do not eat during the winter and only come out in spring; we call them hibernating animals.
16. If he had been more perspicacious, he might not have lost so much money on the stock market.
17. This word is not found in the dictionary, it must have been coined by the author himself.
18. Our firm have a car pool, so if I need a car there's always one there.
19. Mr. Brown was proud of his neat row of marigolds in his flower beds which he looked after with great care.
20. She is studying glaucoma and other diseases of the eye.
Part II Reading Comprehension
Directions: Read the following passages and choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
The small black ants that we see running back and forth in the grass are the same ants that annoy us by coming to our
picnics uninvited. They are not trying to make pests of themselves, but are only doing the housekeeping job they were made for. They are nature's clean-up crew.
One of these ants, scouting (侦察) in the grass, finds the trail of an injured beetle. In some mysterious way the news spreads. Soon there are two ants, then a few more. Then a dozen or more are running around the beetle. Enough ants will come to put an end to it.
When the beetle is dead, the ants carry it away to their underground burrows (洞穴). The efficient ants leave nothing in the grass but the empty shell.
l. The ants that come to our picnics are______.
A. trying to make pests of themselves
B. doing their job
C. looking for company
D. having fun
2. The selection says that the job of these ants is to______.
A. clean up the grassB. kill all beetles
C. make trailsD. help injured insects
3. As soon as an ant finds an injured insect, it______.
A. kills itB. lets other ants know
C. eats itD. carries it away
4. More ants learn about the beetle______.
A. by passing by itB. by smelling it
C. from other ants
D. by hearing the sounds it makes
5. The ants clear the grass by______.
A. burying the beetle
B. carrying the whole beetle away
C. carrying away everything but the shell
D. eating the beetle
In most businesses, 20% of the salesmen make 80% of the sales. Likewise, 20% of the people in the fishermen catch 80% of the fish. And 20% of the people in a discussion carry on 80% of the conversation. This 80-20 rule has a name. It's called the Pareto Principle, labeled after an Italian sociologist who took note of the matter around the turn of the century. You might hear it referred to as "the rule of the vital few and the trivial many". It's said that the best top executives(经理主管人员)are those who can study numerous individuals and figure out which fall into the 20 category and which belong to the 80 group.
1. Pareto is______.
A. a scholarB. an executive
C. a salesclerkD. a fisher
2. The best title for this passage would be______.
A. How to Be a Top Executive
B. Sales and Salesmen
C. Some Fishermen Catch Many Fish
D. The Pareto Principle
3. What is meant by the phrase "the rule of the vital few and the trivial many"?
A. A few people are vital.
B. A few members of any group make most of the important contributions.
C. Most members of a group make important contributions to that group.
D. Some people are vital and trivial.
4. When was the 80-20 rule named?
A. By an Italian sociologist named Pareto.
B. At the turn of the century.
C. Just recently.
D. It hasn't been named yet.
5. The last sentence implies that the best top executives are good at______.
A. making 80% of the sales
B. holding 80% of the conversation
C. spotting productive individuals
D. climbing the corporate ladder
In an experiment designed to study the effect of majority opinion, even when it is contrary to the fact, small groups of subjects observed a standard straight line, and then judged which of three other lines equaled in length. One of the lines was longer, one shorter, one equal to the standard; the differences were great enough that threshold judgements were not involved. All but one member of each of group had been instructed to agree upon a wrong answer for a majority of the trials. The experimental subject was thus pitted(使与……对立)against a majority, and the subject's problem was whether to disagree with the majority or to doubt his or her own judgement and agree. Many subjects refused to change, and continued to hold to their independent appraisals. But a substantial number yielded under pressure from the others' apparent judgements. The amount of yielding depended on the clarity of conditions (lack of clarity led conformity to majority opinion), individual differences, and the size and unanimity(一致)of the opposition. With the opposition of only one other person, there was very little yielding, with two against one the amount of yielding became pronounced, and a majority of three was nearly as effective as larger majorities against the lone dissenter.
1. From the context, what does "appraisals" mean in the passage?
A. Effect. B. Facts.
C. Subjects. D. Judgements.
2. From the context, what does "substantial" mean in the passage?
A. Considerable. B. Considerate.
C. Considered. D. Chief.
3. From the context, what does "yield" mean in the passage?
A. Bear fruit. B. Give in. C. Persist. D. Insist.
4. From the context, what does "pronounced" mean in the passage?
A. Apparent. B. Disappearing.
C. Smaller. D. Spoken.
5. From the context, what does "dissenter" mean in the passage?
A. One who has no opinion of his own.
B. One who holds a different opinion.
C. One who is very stubborn.
D. One whose opinion is always right.
Part IIIShort Answer Questions
Directions: In this part there are four passages with questions or incomplete statements. Read the passages carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words.
It has always been common for students to work to earn money, not only in vacations but also, when practicable, by doing part-time jobs during term-time. As the total cost of study and living may be $2,000 to $3,000 a year, these earnings are useful and often essential. Mostly students do rather unskilled work. Some students do paid work for the university at which they study, in the library or the restaurant, or even by acting as lifeguards at a bathing-place. Others work outside. One popular occupation is that of porter(搬运工) at a supermarket, carrying housewives' groceries out to their cars.
Since 1958 the financial position of students has been improved by the provision of loans by the Federal government. The National Defense Education Act of 1958 enabled students to borrow money to help with expenses, provided that they needed the money and had a good academic record after a period of study, and by 1965, 750,000 students had received loans, amounting to up to $1,000 a year per student. The Higher Education Act of 1965 was an important new development, allowing students to receive loans in their first year at college, on the basis of need alone. Students may take up eleven years to repay the loans, though those who themselves became teachers in public schools only have to repay a portion of the loan. Those who teach in depressed areas are specially favored and each year of depressed area teaching wipes out fifteen percent of the loan received.
1.The reason why students earn money while studying in universities is that_________________.
2. There are many jobs for the students to do, but the popular one is____________________.
3. In addition to students' need, The National Defense Education Act of 1958 took _________into consideration before the provision of the loans.
4. The Higher Education Act of 1965 allowed students to receive loans considering only____________________.
5. From the passage, we can infer that the government encourages graduates to____________________.
Health food is a general term applied to all kinds of foods that are considered more healthful than the types of foods widely sold in supermarkets. For example, whole grains, dried beans and corn oil are health foods. A narrower classification of health food is natural food. This term is used to distinguish between types of the same food. Raw honey is a natural sweetener, whereas refined sugar is not. Fresh fruit is a natural food, but canned fruit, with sugars and other additives(添加剂), is not. The most precise term of all and the narrowest classification within health foods is organic(有机的) food, used to describe food that has been grown on a particular kind of farm. Fruits and vegetables that are grown in gardens, that are treated only with organic fertilizers, that are not sprayed with poisonous insecticides(杀虫剂), and that are not refined after harvest, are organic foods. Meats, fish, and poultry(家禽的) products from animals that are fed only organically-grown feed and that are not injected with hormones are organic foods.
In choosing the type of food you eat, then, you have basically two choices: inorganic, processed foods, or organic, unprocessed foods. A wise decision should include investigation of the allegation(断言) that processed foods contain chemicals, some of which are proven to be toxic(有毒的), and that vitamin content is greatly reduced in processed foods.
1. The most general meaning of "health food" is____________________.
2. Canned fruit is not considered as "natural food" because____________________.
3. How many choices do you have when choosing the type of food you eat?_________________.
4. In processed foods, ____________________is greatly reduced.
5. The main idea of this passage is____________________.
The human volunteer is a man who is in greater and greater demand in these days of expanded scientific research. For the time comes, despite all laboratory work, all experiments with animals, and all the microscopic(极细致的) analyses, when only a human being can provide the true test.
Today, the human volunteer may fall into one of three broad groupings: military men, prisoners, and volunteers whose religious convictions lead them to such work. Among these men and women you will find those who will take shots of the new vaccines(疫苗), who will swallow radioactive(放射性的) drugs, who will fly higher than anyone else, who will watch malaria(疟疾)-infected mosquitoes feed on their bare arms, who will eat nothing but rice for six weeks, and who will permit themselves to be locked alone in chambers too small to stretch their legs.
Why do human guinea pigs volunteer? Some may be seeking adventure; others recognition; but most are moved by religious convictions or a strong sense of scientific dedication. Studies by psychiatrists(精神病学家) of several groups of volunteers have shown that, in addition to these reasons, some have been motivated by the desire to avoid unpleasant situations at home or to hold off(拖延) making decisions on their future careers, while still others volunteered because, unconsciously, they felt guilty of something they had done or thought that they had done and wanted to atone(弥补) for it. One study made of 29 volunteers also indicated that there was some emotional disturbance in 15 of them ranging from personality disorders to neurotic(神经过敏的) reactions.
Is there a little of the volunteer in all of us? Maybe. The polls report that more than five million Americans are willing to take the first flight to the moon.
1. According to the article, human volunteers are in greater demand because of_______________.
2. What dose "human guinea pigs" in paragraph 3 refer to?
3. The motives of volunteers have been studied by____________________.
4. According to the polls, what are five million Americans willing to do?
5. What is the main topic of this passage?
Shakespeare said that "some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them." So it is with leadership. Some men are born with a capacity for leadership. Some acquire that art by watching and studying the actions of those around them. Other persons find themselves thrown into unusual situations which require them to draw on resources they never realized they had, and events bring out marked leadership. Most of us are never put into such tests. Most of us are not born leaders.
We often hear people say, "He is a great guy to work for." We see workers go out for their way to do things for certain supervisors. We see them carry out instructions carefully and well or even add something to the doing of the job which was unexpected. In other words, they put themselves into the job and give it that "plus effort" which people give only when they feel that they are part of the team, that they are making a contribution to its success, that their contributions are understood and appreciated.
Now this is not something which just happens. It is built on a one-to-one relationship. It is a reflection of the person's attitude toward the job, the supervisor, and the company. Where it exists, it has been developed over a period, as a result of three simple elements: confidence, cooperation and understanding of their supervisor who understands them, appreciates their efforts, and tries to give them all a fair deal.
1. What does the word "He" in the sentence "He is a great guy to work for" (Para. 2) refer to?
2. What does the sentence "Most of us are never put to such tests" (Para. 1) mean?
3. Workers are willing to do more than they are told to when____________________.
4. What does "it" refer to in "Where it exists"(Para.3)?
5. What is the passage mainly about?
Part I Word Guessing
1. homograph n. 同形异义词
2. hypothesis n. 假说;臆测
3. incessantly ad. 不停地;不间断地
4. loquacious a. 多话的
5. boisterous a. 喧嚣的
6. gregarious a. 爱交际的
7. haphazardly ad. 任意地;杂乱无章地
8. phobia n. (病态的)恐惧
9. pregnancy n. 怀孕
10. perturb v. 使不安;烦扰
11. relinquish v. 放弃(希望,习惯,信仰等)
12. phlegmatic a. 冷漠的
13. ethology n. (动物)行为学
14. shellac n. 含虫胶的唱片原料
15. hibernate v. 冬眠
16. perspicacious a. 颖悟的,有眼力的
17. coin v. 创造,杜撰(新词,新语等)
18. pool n. 合伙经营
Part II Reading Comprehension
1. B 2. A 3. B 4. C 5. C
1. A 2. D 3. B 4. B 5. C
1. D 2. A 3. B 4. A 5. B
Part III Short Answer Questions
1. the total cost of study and living is high
2. to be a porter at a supermarket
3. their academic record
4. the students' need
5. teach in public schools and depressed areas
1. all foods other than those are sold in the supermarket
2. it has sugar and other additives
3. Two choices: organic and non-organic foods
4. vitamin content
5. what health food is
1. expanded scientific research
2. People who will be experimented on.
4. To take the first flight to the moon.
5. The motives of the human volunteer.
1. One supervisor.
2. Most of us never have chance to be leaders.
3. their works are appreciated
4. The workers' willingness to work hard.
5. The importance of leadership.
(文/李海顺 高合顺 单祝堂 张顺生 赵平 吴彬 英语辅导报大学一年级版03~04学年第38期;版权归英语辅导报社所有，独家网络合作伙伴新浪教育，未经许可，不得以任何形式进行转载。)
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