|Unit 9 Saving the earth|
|http://www.sina.com.cn 2004/11/17 17:04 新浪教育|
You'll attend the meeting and discuss the issue. 你将出席这个会议并讨论这个问题。
attend用作及物动词，意为“出席；参加; 上(学, 教堂)；陪伴”，用作不及物动词，构成下列短语：
attend on/upon服侍, 照料; 陪, 随从
attend to倾听, 注意, 留心
attend a meeting /lecture/school 出席会议/听演讲/上学
May good luck attend you! 祝你幸运!
(2) issue用作名词，意为“出版； (报刊等)期；论点；结果”等；用作动词，意为“发行；(常与to连用)发给；(常与from连用)产生于”。如：
the latest issue 最近一期(报刊)
I bought the novel the day after its issue.
the burning issue of the day 燃眉之急的问题
The teacher issued paper and pencils to all the children.
His difficulties in his work issue from his lack of experience.
attend，join，join in，take part in用法辨析：
I will never forget the day when I joined the Party.
Will you join us for dinner? 请你和我们一起吃饭好吗？
(3) join in通常指参加某种活动，尤其指和其他人一起参加某项活动。如：
May I join in the game? 我可以参加这个游戏吗？
I hope you'll all join in the discussion. 我希望你们大家都参加讨论。
(4) take part in指参加群众性活动、会议、劳动、游行等，往往指参加者持有积极的态度，起一定作用，有时与join in可互换。如：
Will you take part in the English evening? 同我们一起参加英语晚会好吗？
① Would you ____ (和我一起去散步)?
② We should ____ (积极参加) school activities.
③ She didn't come to the party because she had to ____ (出席一个会议).
(Keys: ①join me in a walk ②take an active part in ③attend a meeting )
We must burn the coal so that we can get money to develop our area as soon as possible... 我们必须烧煤以便能够挣到钱来尽快开发我们地区。
(1) so that引导目的状语从句时，从句往往含有情态动词can, may, could, might等，可以与in order that替换使用，还可以与so as to/in order to句型进行转换。如：
Be quiet so that he can sleep. 安静些好使他能睡觉。
They traveled by air so that/in order that they could save time.
= They traveled by air so as to/in order to save time.
(2) as soon as possible 相当于as soon as one can，意为“尽可能……”，possible前省略了it is。类似地：
I'll do as much as possible to help you. 我将尽一切可能帮助你。
The boy ran towards school as fast as he could. 那孩子飞快地向学校奔去。
You must be as careful as possible when you do your homework.
①John shut everybody out of the kitchen ____ he could prepare his grand surprise for the party. (NMET 2002)
A. whichB. whenC. so thatD. as if
②Sally worked late in the evening to finish her report ____ her boss could read it first thing next morning. (NMET 2003春)
A. so thatB. becauseC. beforeD. or else
(Keys: ①C ②A)
Take notes, summarise and help the speakers decide. 记笔记，做总结并帮助演讲者作出决定。
(1) take notes (of) 意为“做笔记；记录”。如：
I didn't take any notes. 我没有记一点笔记。
Please take a note of my new address. 请把我的新地址记下来。
I'll just summarize the main points of the argument in a few words.
The chemistry book had a summary at the end of each chapter.
change one's note 改变态度/口气
compare notes交换意见; 对笔记
It should be noted that...应当注意……
make a note of把……记录下来
worthy of note 值得注意的, 显著的
a onemillionpound note 一张百万英镑的钞票
leave a note for sb. 给某人留个便条
Since then, several Earth Summits have been held and much progress has been made. 自那以后举行了几次全球峰会，取得不少进展。
I have been there many times since the war.
Since then, he has developed another bad habit.
What have you been doing since I last saw you?
We have been friends ever since. 从那以后我们一直是朋友。
I have not seen him since. 那以后我没见到过他。
(2) make progress意为“取得进步”，注意progress是不可数名词。如：
You have made progress with your English. 你的英语进步了。
What great progress you've made this term! 你这学期取得的进步真大！
We have both changed since we parted. 分别以来我们彼此都变了。
It is three years since we parted. 我们已分别三年了。
It is three months since he lived here. 他不在这里居住有三个月了。
Five years has passed since he smoked. 他戒烟五年了。
recently近来so far 到现在为止
up to/till now直到现在ever since(then) 从那时起
in the past few(three) years在过去几年里
①I wonder why Jenny ____ us recently. We should have heard from her by now. (NMET 2002)
A. hasn't written toB. doesn't write to
C. won't write to D. hadn't written to
②— ____ David and Vicky ____ married?
— For about three years. (北京2003)
A. How long were; being
B. How long have; got
C. How long have; been
D. How long did; get
(Keys: ①A ②C )
Twenty percent of the people on earth do not have access to clean drinking water. 世界上20%的人口喝不到清洁的饮用水。
(1) 这里on earth意为“在地球上；世界上”。on earth还可以加强语气，意为“究竟，到底”。如：
Where on earth can he be? 他到底在哪儿呢?
No force on earth can hold back the progress of the society.
What on earth is the matter there? 那里究竟发生了什么事?
There is no access to the street through that door.
The only access to the town is across the bridge.
Citizens may have free access to the library. 市民可以自由使用图书馆。
Students must have access to good books. 学生必须有机会读到好书。
ground, earth, soil和land用法辨析：
They are all lying on the ground. 他们都躺在地上。
The plane fell to the earth.飞机降落在地面上。
This worm eats earth. 这类虫子吃泥土。
This soil is good for growing rice. 这种土壤宜于种水稻。
(4) land 还可作“陆地”解 (相对于大海sea 而言)。如：
The balloon burst and fell to land. 气球爆了，落在地上。
A strong wind is blowing from the sea toward the land. 一阵大风从海上吹到陆地。
Air pollution alone causes almost three million deaths. 单单大气污染就几乎造成三百万人死亡。
Most of the time, I am alone at home. 很多时候我独自一人呆在家里。
I can't lift the box alone; I need your help.
Gifts alone are not enough for a child, because he needs love most.
a lonely traveler 孤身旅行的人
a lonely house荒凉的房子
a lonely mountain village荒凉的山村
He lived a lonely life all his life. 他一生过着孤单的生活。
I am alone, but I'm not lonely at all, for I've got a shortwave radio.
①二者可以替换使用的场合：在肯定句中；修饰all, every, always时；在行为动词的否定式前等。如：
The old man is almost/nearly 90 years old. 这个老人快90岁了。
I go to bed at ten almost/nearly every day.
He almost/nearly didn't hear what I said. 他几乎没听到我讲些什么。
②只能用almost的场合：修饰no, none, never, any以及有no或any的合成词时；修饰表示感觉或心理的动词或形容词时；修饰more than和too时。如：
I have almost nothing to do today. 今天我几乎没什么事可做。
I almost think you are right. 我还不完全相信你是对的。
That's almost too much. 这简直是太过分了。
③ 只能用nearly的场合：被very, not, pretty修饰时。注意：not nearly=far from, much less than差得远,远远不够。如：
I'm not nearly ready. 我还没有准备好。
There is not nearly enough money for a new car.买一部新车的钱远远不够。
①There is ____ none left.
②I know pretty ____ all the secrets of his married life.
③This word is to be found in ____ any dictionary.
(Keys: ①almost ②nearly ③almost)
...and must do whatever they can to help others.而且必须去竭力援助贫困国家。
(1) whatever they can是宾语从句，can后省略了动词do。
(2) other, others, the other, the others, another用法辨析：
I don't know about it. Please ask some other people.
Please show me others. 请拿些别的东西给我看。
Some like dancing, some others like singing.
③the other 是指两者或双方中的另一个人/物，常用于one...the other...句型。如：
I have two friends. One is a policeman and the other is a teacher.
④the others相当于the other+可数名词复数，指一个范围内的剩余全部。如：
There are many boys in our class. Some are playing pingpong. Some are playing football. The others are watching TV.
To say is one thing, to do is another. 说是一回事，做是另一回事。
There's room for another three people in the back of the bus.
用other, others, another填空：
①I don't like this book, give me ____ one.
②Think of ____ as well as yourself.
③You can't get there ____ than by swimming.
(Keys: ①another ②others ③other)
Conferences like the Earth Summit help people understand that there exist serious problems and there is still time to take action. 像全球峰会这样的会议帮助人们了解还存在严重的问题，还有时间去采取行动。
(1) conference 意为“会议；讨论会；协商会”，比较正式，指两人或多人聚会。Meeting则是普通用语，可以是偶然的，也可以是事先安排好的。
Many people came to the meeting in the hall.
address a meeting 向大会致辞
the meeting of two rivers 两条河的交汇处
a press conference 记者招待会
call a conference召集会议
(2) There be...句型中，be动词还可以被stand, live, lie, exist, appear等表示“存在”概念的动词替代。如：
Once there lived an old fisherman in a village by the sea.
On the ground lay a peasant boy of no more than thirteen.
There are three computers in the teachers office. 教师办公室有三台电脑。
In the bedroom there is a bed, a sofa, a desk and a chair.
There are many tourists in the park, aren't there? 公园里有许多游客，是吗？
③There be...句型中，be动词前还可以加上can, may, must, might, used to, ought to, seem to, happen to等情态动词或短语动词。如：
There might be drink if you wait a moment. 如果你等一会儿可能会有饮料。
Used there to be a stone bridge across the river? 过去这河上有座桥吧？
There comes the bus. 公共汽车来了。
—Where are my glasses? 我的眼镜在哪里？
—There they are. 在那里。
①There's nothing interesting in today's newspaper, isn't there?
②There seem to be something wrong about it.
③There have no need for us to discuss the problem since it has already been settled.
(Keys: ①isnt→is ②seem→seems ③have→has)
Not until we know more will we be able to improve the situation. 我们只有了解更多，才能去改善环境。
Not until then did I realize I was mistaken. 直到那时我才意识到是我错了。
Not until I came back did he go to sleep. 直到我回来他才入睡。
He didn't return till/until ten o'clock. 他到十点才回来。
Walk till/until you come to a white house.
(2) 在主句前的从句或短语中, 通常用until。如：
Until he returns, nothing can be done. 他不回来什么也不能做。
Until then, I knew nothing at all about it. 在那时以前, 我对这事一无所知。
(3) 对not... until句型进行强调时，常用It is/was not until...that...结构。如：
It was not until yesterday that I noticed it. 直到昨天我才注意到这件事。
①It was until midnight that I went to sleep last night.
②Don't get off the bus until it stopped.
③Not until I began to work didn't I realize how much time I had wasted.
(Keys: ①until→not until ②stopped→has stopped ③didnt→did)
With better education, people will be able to build a better society in harmony with nature and perhaps put an end to the death and suffering caused by the big three. 接受更好的教育，人们会建立起一个与自然相和谐相处的更好的社会，还可能消灭三大顽疾带来的死亡与苦难。
(1) 这是一个并列句，其中With better education作状语，caused by the big three是过去分词短语作death and suffering的定语。如：
(2) in harmony with意为“与……和谐相处”、“与……协调”。如：
My cat and dog live in perfect harmony. 我的猫和狗相处得十分和睦。
We must ensure that tourism develops in harmony with the environment.
(3) put an end to意为“结束”、“终结”。如：
How can we put an end to the fighting? 我们如何才能结束这场战斗呢？
Make sure that you are ready to answer questions and defend your argument! 要保证准备回答问题并对你的论据进行辩护。
defend指“保卫”、“防御”, 应用范围很广, 对象可以是具体的, 也可以是抽象的。另外，defend还可以表示“以行动、语言或文字进行辩护或答辩”。如：
defend the motherland 保卫祖国
She had to defend herself against the guard dog. 她不得不防备看门狗咬她。
The accused man had a lawyer to defend him. 被告有一位律师为他辩护。
defence n. 防卫；答辩、辩护
What we do is important because it affects the environment. 我们所做的事情很重要，因为它影响环境。
(1) What we do是主语从句，because则引导原因状语从句。如：
①effect是名词，意为“结果”、“效力”、“影响”，常用在 have effect on的词组中。如：
The medicine has little effect on the old man. 这药对那老人几乎没有效果。
Punishment almost had no effect on the naughty boy.
Our arguments had some effect on them. 我们的议论对他们有一些影响。
②动词 affect 作“影响”解，通常指对身体、思想或情绪带来不良影响。如：
The rise in prices will affect all classes.
The climate affected his health. 气候影响了他的健康。
③affect 还有“感动”、“触动”之意，相当于 move。如：
I was too much affected to answer. 我感动得无言以对。
Music affects some people very strongly.音乐对一些人有极强的感染力。
She was affected at seeing such a scene. 她看到这种场面深受感动。
①Some plants are quickly ____ by cold.
②He was much ____ by the sad news.
③Our arguments had some ____ on them.
(Keys: ①affected ②affected ③effect)
I would advise people not to buy products that harm the environment. 我会劝告人们不要买对环境有害的产品。
I shall act as you advise. 我将按你的忠告去做。
He advised an early start. 他建议及早出发。
(2) advise +动名词
I advise waiting another ten minutes. 我提议再等十分钟。
The doctor advised me to take more exercise. 医生嘱咐我多加锻炼。
And I advise you not to eat fruit that isn't ripe in the future.
(4) advise+sb.+ against doing sth.
The doctor advised my father against smoking.
(5) advise+ sb.+ that从句(从句谓语用“should+动词原形”，should可以省略)
The doctor advised me that I (should) eat less and exercise more.
That's my advice to you. 这就是我给你出的主意。
(2) 常见短语：a piece of advice 一条意见give advice 提出忠告take/follow one's advice接受忠告
①Steven gave me some good advices.
②I think I'd advise him leave the company.
③They're advising that children are kept out of the sun altogether.
(Keys: ①advices→advices ②leave→to leave ③are→be)
I recommend that all of us should think about what we do and what we buy. 我建议大家都应该考虑该做什么、买什么。
Can you recommend a good dictionary? 你能介绍一本好词典吗？
This hotel has nothing to recommend it. 这家旅馆没有什么可吸引人的。
The doctor recommended (that) I take more exercise. 医生建议我多锻炼。
1.用于there be(lie, stand, live, seem, appear, exist, come等)句型中。如：
There is a book and two notebooks on the desk.
There stands a post office at the corner of the street. 街的拐角处有一个邮局。
2.用于here, now, then, out, in, up, down, off, back, away等副词开头的句子里。如：
Here is a letter for you.有你一封信。
Then came the day of his examination. 接着他考试的那天到来了。
Down jumped the boy from the wall. 孩子从墙上跳了下来。
Here she comes. 她来了。
“If you die, who will get your money?” asked Holmes.
“I don't know her.” he will say. 他会说：“我不认识她。”
Among them was an engineer who had been working on that object for many years. 他们当中有一位多年研究那个课题的工程师。
He came into a big room, in the middle of which stood a large table.
South of the city lies a middle school.城市南边有一所中学。
Hanging on the wall was a beautiful picture.一幅漂亮的画挂在墙上。
Long live our great motherland！伟大的祖国万岁！
1.用在含有否定词little, never, seldom, barely，never, before, neither...nor...，nowhere，not a bit，in no time等开头的句子里。如：
Little did he care about his own safety, though he was in great danger himself.
Neither does he drink nor does he smoke.他既不喝酒也不抽烟。
Not until she saw the presents did she feel happy.
3.Not only...but also...连接两个并列分句时，第一个分句倒装，后一个则不倒装。如：
Not only was the city polluted but the streets were crowded.
Hardly had I entered the army when I felt very proud.
Only then did I take pity on him.只有到那时我才同情他。
Only with hard work can you expect to get a pay rise.
So small were the words that he could hardly see them.
Such an interesting film is it that we are all moved.
Child as he is, he has to make a living.虽然他是个孩子，但他得谋生。
Much as I would like to help you, I am busy now.
Object as you may, I'll go.即使你反对，我也要去。
Were I you, I wouldn't do it. 如果我是你，我不会做那件事。
Should she come, tell her to call me up. 如果她来的话，告诉她给我打电话。
9.表示前边一种肯定/否定情况也适合于后者，用“so/neither/nor + be动词/情态动词/助动词+主语”结构。如：
Jenny can speak English very well. So can Rose.
I have never been to Shanghai and neither/ nor has he.
May you be happy！祝你幸福！
1. The old couple have been married for 40 years and never once ____ with each other. ( NMET 2003)
A. they had quarreledB. they have quarreled
C. have they quarreled
D. had they quarreled
2. Only when your identity has been checked, ____ . (上海2003春)
A. you are allowed in
B. you will be allowed in
C. will you allow in
D. will you be allowed in
3. Not only ____ interested in football but ____ beginning to show an interest in it. (上海2002)
A. the teacher himself is; all his students are
B. the teacher himself is; are all his students
C. is the teacher himself; are all his students
D. is the teacher himself; all his students are
4. ____ , I have never seen anyone whos as capable as John. (上海2001)
A. As long as I have traveled
B. Now that I have traveled so much
C. Much as I have traveled
D. As I have traveled so much
5. I finally got the job I dreamed about. Never in all my life ____ so happy! (2000春)
A. did I feelB. I feltC. I had feltD. had I felt
6. ____ can you expect to get a pay rise. (北京2001春)
A. With hard workB. Although work hard
C. Only with hard workD. Now that he works hard
7. He ____ to the lab than he set out to do the experiment. (上海1999)
A. has no sooner gotB. no sooner got
C. will no sooner getD. had no sooner got
8. Not until all the fish died in the river ____ how serious the pollution was. (NMET 1995)
A. did the villagers realize
B. the villagers realized
C. the villagers did realize
D. didn't the villagers realize
9. Little ____ about his own safety, though he was in great danger himself. (上海1994)
A. does he careB. did he care
C. he caresD. he cared
10. So ____ that no fish can live in it. (上海1992)
A. the lake is shallowB. shallow the lake is
C. shallow is the lakeD. is the lake shallow
(Keys: 1—5 CDDCD6—10 CDABC)
1. Shanghai is really a fascinating city and weve decided to stay for ____ two weeks. (上海2003)
A. anotherB. otherC. the otherD. others
【点拨】选A。another two weeks相当于two other weeks，意为“另外两周”。
2. “I don't think its my ____ that the TV blew up. I just turned it on,thats all,” said the boy. (上海2003)
A. errorB. mistakeC. faultD. duty
【点拨】选C。fault表示“(承担错误的)责任；过失”，error 强调“违反某一既定标准, 不经心而做了错事, 产生偏差、疏忽或行动上的错误”，mistake 指“由于粗心、不注意或由于理解、认识或判断上的不正确而造成行动或看法上的错误, 有时这种错误是无意的。
3. As far as I am concerned, education is about learning and the more you learn, ____ . (上海2002)
A. the more for life are you equipped
B. the more equipped for life you are
C. the more life you are equipped for
D. you are equipped the more for life
【点拨】选B。“The+比较级..., the+比较级...”是固定句型，意为“越……越……”，前者是从句，后者是主句。be equipped for是固定词组，意为“对……有准备”。
4.— You forgot your purse when you went out.
— Good heavens, ____ . (上海2002)
A. so did IB. so I didC. I did soD. I so did
【点拨】选B。so I did表示强调，意为“我的确如此”。
5. What a pity my new computer doesn't work. ____ must be something wrong with it. (上海1999)
A. ItB. ThereC. ThisD. That
【点拨】选B。There must be....(肯定有……)是There be...句型的复杂形式。
1. — I really like the MP3 disc you lent me last week.
— ____ .
A. I’m glad you like itB. Thats all right
C. Don't mention itD. I hope you like it
2. One of the sides of the board should be painted yellow, and ____ .
A. the other is whiteB. another white
C. the other whiteD. another is white
3. ____ entered the office when he realized that he had left his report at home.
A. He hardly hadB. Had he hardly
C. Hardly had heD. Hardly he had
4. Mary smiled ____ her mother did when she was Marys age.
A. whatB. as ifC. the wayD. that
5. It's beyond description. Nowhere else in the world ____ such a quiet, beautiful place.
A. can there be B. you can find
C. there can beD. can find you
6. —I guess you might have got lost there last Sunday?
—Well, I ____ .
A. mostly didB. nearly had
C. almost hadD. almost did
7. It was not until ____ that ____ to study English.
A. he came to Beijing, he began
B. did he come to Beijing, he began
C. he came to Beijing, did he begin
D. did he come to Beijing, did he begin
8. — Have you known each other for long?
—Not very long, ____ we came to this school, actually.
A. afterB. beforeC. whenD. since
9. The new law will come into ____ on the day it is passed.
A. effectB. useC. serviceD. existence
10. — I'd like to play football with you, but I have an important thing to attend to.
— If you don't go, ____ .
A. neither do IB. so will I
C. nor will ID. so do I
My 23yearold son Dan stood in the doorway, ready to say goodbye to his home. In a couple of hours he was going to fly out to France. He was going to be away for at least one year to learn a foreign language and 11 in a foreign country.
It was a milestone in Dans life, a change from school days to 12. When we were to say goodbye, I 13 closely at his face. I would like to provide him with good 14 that would last longer than here and now.
But not a sound came over my lips. I 15 motionless and silent, looking 16 my sons green eyes.
I knew that this wasnt the first time I 17 such an opportunity pass me by. When Dan was a little boy, I followed him to the bus on his first day in preschool. I 18 the excitement in his hand that held mine when the bus came round the corner. He looked at me — just 19 he did now. And then he boarded the bus and 20 . The bus drove away. And I hadnt 21 a word.
Some ten years later, a similar experience 22 . His mother and I drove him to the university where he was going to 23 Dan was ill in bed when I wanted to say goodbye. 24 the words let me down. I only murmured something like “I hope you are 25, Dan.” Then I turned around and left.
Now I stood in front of him and recalled all the 26 when I hadnt make use of those opportunities. Why does it have to be so 27 to tell your son what you feel? My mouth was 28 , and I knew I would only say a few words.
“Dan,” I 29 stammered out(结结巴巴地说), “if I had the choice myself, I would have 30
you.” That was all I could say. It was nothing, and yet it was everything.
11. A. experiment B. experience C. business D. knowledge
12. A. hardworkingB. childhoodC. adulthoodD. freedom
13. A. lookedB. fixedC. glaredD. stared
14. A. giftB. supportC. skillD. advice
15. A. saidB. stoodC. satD. wondered
16. A. likeB. forC. atD. into
17. A. madeB. hadC. letD. noticed
18. A. feltB. knewC. foundD. realized
19. A. whenB. likeC. sinceD. once
20. A. enjoyedB. ranC. wentD. disappeared
21. A. heardB. saidC. gaveD. left
22. A. took placeB. took onC. turned outD. turned up
23. A. playB. visitC. studyD. search
24. A. LuckilyB. OnceC. AgainD. Therefore
25. A. livelyB. happierC. greaterD. better
26. A. timesB. placesC. daysD. chances
27. A. eagerB. importantC. difficultD. lovely
28. A. wetB. dryC. anxiousD. tight
29. A. directlyB. finallyC. kindlyD. nervously
30. A. lovedB. praisedC. supportedD. chosen
Recent studies have shown that the earth is getting warmer. The scientists who carried out the studies say a large amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is the reason for the warming. CO2 is the gas which human and animals give off when they breathe. It is also produced when coal, oil and other things are burnt. Scientists have warned that this kind of burning is adding too much CO2 to the atmosphere. They believe the gas acts like a green house; the glasstopped building used to grow plants in cold weather. They say the gas is like the glass roof of a green house, which lets in sunlight, but prevents heat from running away. As a result, they say the earth becomes warmer.
One of these scientists, Dr. Hansen, says the weather will become so hot that some rivers will dry up. On the other hand, satellite pictures show us there is less ice in the Antarctic(南极) during the summer time than in earlier years. The heat would turn all the ice at both ends of the earth into water, making the oceans rise five to seven metres higher than they are now.
31. The weather is getting warmer because ____ .
A. there are too many human and animals on the earth
B. a lot of heat has been produced by burning of some materials
C. the sun has given more heat for recent years
D. there is a large amount of CO2 in the atmosphere
32. Farmers in cold weather build some green house to ____ .
A. keep warm in winter
B. get some more sunlight
C. get some heat to plant some vegetables
D. prevent some vegetables from shining
33. Too much CO2 makes the earth warmer than before because ____ .
A. it can give heat to the earth
B. it can prevent heat from running away
C. it can absorb(吸收)heat from the sun
D. it can pollute the atmosphere
34. According to the view of Dr. Hansen, some day in the future ____ .
A. all rivers on the earth will dry up
B. the water level on land will rise five to seven metres higher
C. all ice in the Antarctic will turn into water
D. all ice on the earth will turn into water
35. What do you think the best way to prevent the earth from getting warmer?
A. Many animals should be got rid of.
B. Many kinds of materials should be used again.
C. The growing increase of population should be controlled.
D. Something should be done to prevent air pollution.
We are all called upon to make a speech at some points in life, but most of us don't do a very good job. This article gives some suggestion on how to give an effective speech.
So, you have to give a speech—and youre terrified. You get nervous, you forget what you want to say, you stumble over words, you talk too long, and you bore your audience. Later you think, “Thank goodness, it's over. I'm just not good at public speaking. I hope I never have to do that again.”
Cheer up! It doesn't have to be that bad. Here are some simple steps to take the pain out of speech making. Ask yourself the purpose of your speech. What is the occasion? Why are you speaking? Then, gather as many facts as you can on your subject. Spend plenty of time doing your research. Then spend plenty of time organizing your material so that your speech is clear and easy to follow. Use as many examples as possible, and use pictures, charts, and graphs if they will help you make your points more clearly. Never forget your audience. Don't talk over their heads, and don't talk down to them. Treat your audience with respect. They will appreciate your thoughtfulness.
Just remember: Be prepared. Know your subject, your audience, and the occasion. Be brief. Say what you have to say and then stop. And be yourself. Let your personality come through so that you make persontoperson contact with your audience.
If you follow these simple steps, you'll see that you don't have to be afraid of public speaking. In fact, you may find the experience so enjoyable that you volunteer to make more speeches! You're not convinced yet? Give it a try and see what happens.
36. The main idea of this article is ____ .
A. you can improve your speaking ability
B. a poor speaker can never change
C. always make a short speech
D. it is hard to make a speech
37. Paragraph 2 implies that ____ .
A. many people are afraid of giving a speech
B. many people are happy to give a speech
C. many people do not prepare for a speech
D. many people talk too long
38. The underlined phrase “talk over their heads” means ____ .
A. speak too loudly
B. look at the ceiling
C. look down upon them
D. use words and ideas that are too difficult
39. All of the following statements are true EXCEPT that ____ .
A. few people know how to make good speeches
B. a lecturer does not need to organize his speech
C. research is important in preparing a speech
D. there are simple steps you can take to improve your speaking ability
40. The title for this passage may be ____ .
A. Do Not Make a Long Speech
B. How to Give a Good Speech
C. How to Prepare for a Speech
D. Try to Enjoy a Speech
Last month we bought our twoyearold daughter a little
dog. There are not many children of her age there we live,41 ____ .
and we thought a dog would make her less alone. We were42 ____ .
right. They play together happy all day. Our daughter now43 ____ .
smiles and laughs a lot more than she used. In a way it44 ____ .
is like having two children in the house. All of them are45 ____ .
very untidy, but they cry when they do not get what they46 ____ .
want. The dog is easy to look after than my daughter.47 ____ .
He always eats up all his food and we dont have piles of48 ____ .
dirty clothes to wash. My wife is also happy because of49 ____ .
I have given up smoke. The dog doesnt like the smell.50 ____ .
It is clear that Class 3 will win the match.
It would be better if we had a better knowledge of the machine.
She is the most likely girl to win the prize.
Scientists are now trying to discover if this is possible.
Well, in fact, I should say I'm not sure.
If nothing is done about the pollution, then we'll have no place to live.
We should spend more money on science so we can use the coal in a better way.
We must make sure no one goes hungry in the world.