|unit 16 Scientists at work|
|http://www.sina.com.cn 2004/10/11 10:51 新浪教育|
在阅读过程中，我们可以根据生词的构词线索来推测该词的词义，这也是一种积极有效的阅读策略。《英语课程标准》中的“语法项目表”规定我们需要了解的构词法有合成法、派生法和转换法三种。由两个或两个以上的词合成一个新词，称为合成法，如world+wide→worldwide(世界范围的)等。在一个单词(词根)前后加上词缀，构成一个新词，叫派生法，如unwillingly(不愿意地)和comfortable(舒适的)。转换法是将一种词类转变为另一种词类，如Father eyed me seriously.(父亲严肃地盯了我一眼)等。
Chinas first astronaut Yang Liwei walked out of the return capsule (舱) of the Shenzhou 5 spaceship, smiling and waving to the waiting people. Thursday morning in the grasslands in Gobi Desert, Inner Mongolia, state television pictures showed.
Yang has spent 21 hours in outer space, travelling more than 600,000 kilometers in the earths orbit (轨道) before Shenzhou 5 brought him back at 6:07 a.m. Thursday morning Beijing time. Yang said he feels excellent after the 21hour journey, the first by a Chinese.
Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao said in a congratulation message Thursday morning that Chinas first manned spaceflight has been a “complete success”, which shall be written into the history of Chinas space program development.①
After Yang went out of the capsule, doctors offered a physical checkup to Yang at once, which found him in good conditions. At about 7∶40 a.m., Yang was carried by a helicopter (直升机) to Beijing, where a celebration party will be held.
At about 6:00 a.m. Thursday, the return capsule of Shenzhou 5 entered Chinas air space. Several minutes later, the capsule landed safely in Northwest Chinas Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,② and Yang reported “The conditions are good”.
Five rescue helicopters went very fast towards the capsule and found it at 6:36 a.m. They said Yang felt good and the conditions with the capsule also seemed normal.
At 6:51, Yang Liwei went out of the capsule on himself, waving and smiling to rescuers and reporters.
Li Jinai, director of Chinas space program, said that, the actual (实际) landing site is only 4.8 kilometers from the designed site (预定着落点), the conditions of the return capsule are good and Yang could walk out of the capsule on himself. All these marked the complete success of the manned flight.
1. When Yang Liwei stepped out of the capsule, he looked____ .
A. tiredB. afraidC. all rightD. sad
2. The capsule landed____ .
A. far away from what it was designed
B. exactly on the place where it was designed
C. not far from the place where it was designed
D. away from Gobi Desert
3. The passage is mainly about____ .
A. the successful return of Shenzhou 5
B. the successful travel around the earth
C. the rescuing of the Shenzhou 5
D. the designed place where the capsule should land
① Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao said in a congratulation message Thursday morning that Chinas first manned spaceflight has been a “complete
success”, which shall be written into the history of Chinas space program development. 中国总理温家宝在周四上午的贺电里讲道：中国首次载人航天飞行已经获得“巨大成功”，这将载入中国太空发展计划的史册。
② Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region 内蒙古自治区
What makes a person a scientist? Does he have ways or tools of learning that are different from those of others? The answer is “no”. It is not the tools a scientist uses but how he uses these tools that makes him a scientist. You will probably agree that knowing how to use a power is important to a carpenter (木匠). You will probably agree too, that knowing how to investigate (调查), how to gather information, is important to everyone. The scientist, however, goes one step further: he must be sure that he has a reasonable answer to his question and that his answer can be made certain by other persons. He also works to fit the answers he gets to many questions into a large set of ideas about how the world works.
The scientists knowledge must be exact. There is no room for halfright or right just half the time. He must be as nearly right as the conditions permit. What works under one set of conditions at one time must work under the same conditions at other times.① If the conditions are different, any changes the scientist sees and notices in an act of proving must be explained by the changes in the conditions. This is one reason why investigations are important in science. Albert Einstein, who developed the theory of relativity,② arrived at this theory through mathematics or maths. The accuracy (正确性) of his mathematics was later tested through investigations. Einstein's ideas were shown to be correct. A scientist uses many tools for measurements. Then the measurements are used to make mathematical calculations (计算) that may test his investigations.
1. What makes a scientist according to the passage?
A. The tools he uses. B. His ways of learning.
C. The ways he uses his tools. D. The power he uses.
2. A reasonable scientific theory should be one that____ .
A. works under one set of conditions at one time and also works under the same conditions at other times
B. leaves no room for improvement
C. does not allow any change even under different conditions
D. can be used for many purposes
3. What is the main idea of the passage?
A. Scientists are different from ordinary people.
B. The theory of relativity.
C. Exactness is the most important part of science.
D. Exactness and ways of using tools are the keys to the making of a scientist.
①What works under one set of conditions at one time must work under the same conditions at other times.其理论在某一时期某些条件下行
Reading speed: ____
② the theory of relativity 相对论。
In 1901 a German scientist named William Roentgen received the first Nobel Prize for Physics. He had discovered Xrays. He made his discovery when he noticed that in certain experiments a special kind of light was made by the cathode rays (阴极射线) hitting a screen. The other scientists working with him had noticed this light but they did not think it was important. Roentgen was the first person to ask himself questions about this special kind of light. When he examined it, he discovered a new kind of radiation called Xrays.
We often think that a creative idea suddenly comes into our heads from nowhere.① This is not usually the case — it comes because we are ready to receive it. When someone asked Issac Newton how he had discovered the laws of gravity (引力), he replied, “I am certain that any mind working on a problem continuously will be prepared for the sudden answer.” Albert Einstein received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921 and said that there are discoveries waiting to be made if people continue to look and study all the time.
One of the problems facing creative people is that their ideas may be too new for the rest of the world. It often happens that people laugh at the work of artists and scientists. Barbara McClintock is a good example of someone who continued to think she was right although for 30 years other scientists thought that she was wrong. Finally, her work proving that genes (基因) can make sudden changes in heredity (遗传) won her the Nobel Prize in 1983.②
Many creative people looking for ideas or solutions find them in a visual (幻觉) form first. Elias Howe, the man who invented the sewing machine, had a big problem facing him. He could not understand how to connect the needle to the rest of the machine. Needles had always had a pointed end, with the hole at the other end. One night in a dream he was “attacked” by people with sharp spears (矛). In the morning he said, “There is the answer staring me in the face!”③ He made a hole in the sharp end of the needle and then connected it to the sewing machine.
1. We can infer (推断) from the passage that “creativity” means ____.
A. the imagination to find a way of doing things
B. the plan to make an important discovery
C. the ability to make something different
D. the power to make something new
2. The writers purpose in writing this passage is____ .
A. to tell some interesting stories
B. to prove that people are creative in many ways
C. to praise some great scientists
D. to explain why some people are clever
3. Which of the following statements is best supported by the third paragraph?
A. Believe in your own ideas.
B. Pay attention to your dreams.
C. Ask questions about everything around you.
D. Collect as much information as you can.
4. Which of the following statements is FALSE ?
A. You can be more creative if you read a lot.
B. You can improve your creativity by asking lots of questions.
C. You can help your creativity by getting into the habit of thinking about ordinary things.
D. Doing a lot of preparation can help you be more creative.
①We often think that a creative idea suddenly comes into our heads from nowhere.
Reading speed: ____
②Finally, her work proving that genes can make sudden changes in heredity won her the Nobel Prize in 1983.
③There is the answer staring me in the face! 答案就在眼前！
stare sb. in the face 近在眼前；摆在眼前。
Why dont birds get lost on their long migratory (迁移的) flights? Scientists tried their best to find the 1 to this question for many years. The reasons have been discovered only lately.
2 ago experiments showed that birds depend on the sun to guide them 3 . But what about birds that fly mainly by night? 4 with manmade stars have 5 that certain nightflying birds are able to follow the 6 in their long distance flights.
One such 7 , a warbler (鸣禽), had spent its lifetime in a 8 and had never flown under a natural sky. Yet is showed its 9 by birth to use the stars for guidance.① The bird's cage was put under a manmade starfilled sky at migration 10 . The bird tried to fly 11 the same direction as 12 taken by other birds in the building.② Any 13 in the position of the makebelieve (虚构的) stars 14 a change in the direction of its flight.
Scientists think that warblers, 15 flying in daylight, use the sun for guidance. But stars are clearly their important 16 of navigation(导航). What do they do when the stars are 17 behind the clouds? Clearly, they find their way by such land 18 as mountains, coastlines and river courses. But when it's too 19 to see these, the warblers circle 20 , unable to find out where they were.
1. A. replyB. answerC. discoveryD. replies
2. A. Not long B. Long C. CenturiesD. Years
3. A. during the night B. during daylight hours
C. in winter D. in the dark
4. A. Examinations B. Labs C. TestsD. In the dark
5. A. been proved B. found C. been foundD. proved
6. A. stars B. moon C. routeD. sun
7. A. star B. scientist C. birdD. flight
8. A. forest B. cage C. nestD. cave
9. A. strength B. ability C. experienceD. practice
10. A. time B. place C. wayD. season
11. A. to B. towards C. in D. under
12. A. that B. which C. oneD. it
13. A. one B. change C. wayD. bird
14. A. caused B. gave C. resultedD. meant
15. A. for B. when C. afterD. they are
16. A. ways B. means C. objectsD. homes
17. A. shown B. covered C. movedD. hidden
18. A. areas B. surface C. marksD. signs
19. A. far B. high C. darkD. bright
20. A. helplessly B. quickly C. easilyD. freely
①Yet is showed its ability by birth to use the stars for guidance.
这是倒装句，主语是its ability by birth to use the stars for guidance。
②The bird tried to fly in the same direction as that taken by other birds in the building.
1. C. 根据文中第一段和倒数第三段即可判断出，他的健康情况很好。
2. C. 根据最后一段“the actual landing site is only 4.8 kilometers from the designed site...”可知答案。
3. A. 文章是围绕飞船的成功着落而展开的。
1. C. 由第一段“It is not...but how he uses these tools that makes him a scientist.”可知答案。
2. A. 第二段前4句说明了什么是正确的科学理论。
3. D. 对全文的高度概括，紧扣文章的主题：“What makes a person a scientist?”
1. D. 由第三段、第四段可知creative people是指有“new ideas and solutions”的人，由此可推知对creativity的解释只有D正确。
2. B. 根据文中对几位著名科学家用不同方式进行科学研究发现的介绍可知答案。
3. A. 第三段简要介绍了这位女科学家坚信自己的先进理论最终获得成功的故事。
4. A. B、C、D分别可在文中第一段、第二段中找到根据。
1. B. answer一般指经过思考并有针对性的详细解答；reply仅指一般的答复。
2. A. not long ago对应上段结尾的lately。
3. B. 下文“But...by night”提示此处与之相对而言。上文的sun也暗示了在白天。
4. C. 通过“测试”证明……
5. D. 当prove意思是“证明或证实……的结果”时不用被动语态。
6. A. 见下段中间：“...use the stars for guidance”。
7. C. warbler为鸟中的一类。
8. B. 下文第二句中有提示，本为“笼”中之鸟。
9. B. 利用星星导航是鸟类天生就有的一种“能力”。
10. A. D为可数名词，须有冠词，且与空白前的at搭配不当。
11. C. 朝……方向，用“in...direction”。
12. A. that指代direction，后有ed形式短语作定语。
13. B. 此句交代实验中的重要环节，以证实warbler的“ability”。
14. A. result要和in搭配。
15. B. 与后面动词use所表示的动作“同时”。
16. B. 四个选项词义相比，应选means(手段)。
17. D. 云“遮”星，cover常与with连用。
18. C. 空白后as所接三个名词(短语)均属land marks(地面标志)。
19. C. 空白前it指“天”，选dark。
20. A. helplessly与下文unable相呼应。
1. ...Yang Liwei went out of the capsule on himself. 杨利伟独自走出船舱。(Line 26, Passage A)
on oneself “独自地”。常见的“介词 + oneself”结构还有：
I go for a walk by myself every evening. 我每天晚上独自出去散步。(by oneself 单独地)
She thinks for herself; she doesnt follow her husband blindly. 她独立思考，不盲从她的丈夫。(for oneself 亲自地)
The door closes of itself. 门自己关上了。(of oneself 自动地；自然地)
When one dines in a restaurant one likes a table to oneself. 人们在饭店吃饭时，喜欢独自占用一张桌子。(to oneself 独自享用)
2. Clearly, they find their way by such land marks as mountains, coastlines and river courses. 很明显，它们是根据山脉、海岸线和河道这些地面标志来找到方向的。(Line 16, Passage D)
find one's way into 设法进入force one's way out 挤出去； 冲出去
push one's way in 挤进去lose one's way 迷路
feel one's way 谨慎小心地进行fight one's way 打开一条道路
follow one's way随心所欲地做keep one's way 一直前进
miss one's way 迷失方向make one's way 前进
pick one's way 小心走路push one's way 挤过
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