|http://www.sina.com.cn 2003/09/26 00:25 新浪教育|
Looking back on my childhood,I realize that naturalists are born and not made.Although we were all brought up in the same way,my brothers and sisters soon gave up their pressed flowers and insects.Unlike them,I had no ear for music and languages.I was not an early reader and I could not do mental arithmetic.
Before World War I we spent our summer holidays in Hungary.I have only the unclear memory of the house we lived in,of my room and my toys.Nor do I recall clearly the large family of grandparents,aunts,uncles and cousins who gathered next door.But I do have a clear memory of the dogs,the farm animals,the local birds,and above all,the insects.
I am a naturalist,not a scientist.I have a strong love of the natural world and my eagerness has led me into varied studies or research.I love discussing my favorite topics and enjoy burning the midnight oil while reading about other people's observations and discoveries.Then something happens that brings these observations together in my sensible mind.Suddenly you imagine you see the answer to the puzzling question,because it all seems to fit together.This has resulted in my publishing 300 papers and books,which some might honor with the title of scientific research.
But curiously,a sharp eye,a good memory and enjoyment of the animal and plant worlds do not make a scientist;one of the bestknown and important qualities required is selftraining,a quality I lack.A scientist requires not only selfdiscipline but hard training,determination and a goal.A scientist,up to a point,can be made.A naturalist is born.If you can combine the two,you get the best of both.
1. naturalist n.博物学家
2. pressed adj.加压的,压制的,模冲,挤压的
3. mental arithmetic心算
4. eagerness n.热心
5. sensible adj.明智的；敏感的
6. result in导致
7. combine vt.使联合，结合
( )1The first paragraph tells us the author_____.
A. was interested in flowers and insects in his childhood
B. lost his hearing when he was a child
C. didn't like his brothers and sisters
D. was born to a naturalist's family
( )2The author can't remember his relatives clearly because_____.
A. he didn't live very long with them
B. the family was extremely large
C. he was too young when he lived with them
D. he was fully busy with observing nature
( )3It can be inferred from the passage that the author was_____.
A. a scientist as well as a naturalist
B. a naturalist as well as a scientist
C. no more than a born naturalist
D. first of all a scientist
( )4The author says that he is a naturalist rather than a scientist probably because he thinks he_____.
A. has great deal of trouble doing mental arithmetic
B. lacks some of the qualities required of a scientist
C. just reads about other people's observations and discoveries
D. comes up with answers in a most natural way
No one knows why we sleep,but it's certain that we need to.People who are prevented from sleeping begin to suffer obvious effects.After a few days they think less clearly,and they fall asleep during the working hours.Some may have hallucinations.
There are no rules about sleep.Generally speaking,grownups sleep about 7 and a half hours each night and probably more than 60 percent get between seven and 8 hours.But perhaps eight percent are quite happy with 5 hours or less,and 4 percent or so find that they want ten hours or more.If you feel all right,you're probably getting enough sleep.The important thing is not to worry how much other people get.Their needs may be different.Exercise doesn't seem to increase the need for sleepoffice workers,for example,sleep for about as long as people doing physically active work.
Children sleep more than grownups--perhaps 14 to 18 hours soon after birth,going down to grownup levels by early teenage.Sleep patterns also tend to be different in the elderly,who may sleep less at night than they did when younger,find sleep getting more broken and often make it a rule to sleep during the daytime.
1. hallucination n.幻觉
2. or so大约
3. physically adv.身体上；肉体上
4. tend vt.(常与to连用)有某种倾向；有……的趋势
( )1According to the passage,some people are unable to think clearly because they_____.
A. have hallucinations
B. feel sleepy during the working hours
C. don't have enough sleep
D. are certain to be kept from going to bed
( )2Which of the following is true？
A. All grownups must have at least eighthour sleep.
B. Most of grownups sleep for seven or eight hours.
C. Quite a few people need only 5 hours or less for them to sleep.
D. No grownups sleep more than 10 hours.
( )3Whether you have got enough sleep is judged by_____.
A. how many hours you have slept
B. how many hours you need to sleep
C. whether you do exercise and physical work
D. whether you feel fresh and energetic
()4Who finds they sleep less during the night and must take a nap during the day？
A. Children. B. Grownups. C. Young people. D. Old people.
Some people cannot learn in ordinary schools.Physical or ___1__ handicap prevents a child from learning.Today new ___2__ are being used in special schools to help the disabled __3___.A school is being __4___in New Jersey,USA. It is called Bancroft.Here the disabled will be trained to ___5__ themselves and to get along in the outside world.
Bancroft is not surrounded by __6___ of any kind.Its director insists that it be __7___ so that students may gradually develop __8___ relations with the rest of the world.Bancroft students will __9___ in apartments,cooking their own meals,and learning to perform other __10___. As they become __11___,they will buy their own furniture,paying for it out of their own __12___. They will pay for their food,too.They will learn to expect __13___ bills for the calls they make every month.
As a step towards the goal of becoming __14___,each disabled person will decide what kind of work he wants to be __15___ to do.While some of the training will be _16____ on within Bancroft itself,most of the students will receive __17___ training in nearby towns.They will be trained by town people.
After the training has been _18____ completed,the student will work __19___ an assistant and will begin to earn money.After that he will leave Bancroft, __20___ the school will continue to give him help if he __21___ it.
How long will it take a student to ___22__ his training under this new system? The director says,"For some a year will be __23___. For others it might take ten years." For all,however,this method offers new __24___. Many will learn to be _25____ and independent,supporting themselves in the world.
1. handicap n.残疾，障碍
2. surround vt.围住,环绕
3. relation n.关系,联系;家属,亲属;亲属关系
4. system n.系统,体系；制度通读短文选出一个最佳答案
( )1A. spirit B. mental C. thought D. body
( )2A. plans B. decisions C. tools D. methods
( )3A. learn B. live C. earn D. play
( )4A. turned up B. set up C. searched for D. longed for
( )5A. enjoy B. teach C. help D. support
( )6A. trainers B. students C. trees D. walls
( )7A. free B. open C. quiet D. different
( )8A. special B. familiar C. normal D. close
( )9A. live B. study C. hide D. cook
( )10A. operations B. tasks C. plays D. acts
( )11A. strong B. healthy C. able D. happy
( )12A. hands B. wealth C. earnings D. abilities
( )13A. telephone B. education C. housing D. food
( )14A. brave B. clever C. learned D. independent
( )15A. asked B. sent C. trained D. made
( )16A. taken B. called C. tried D. carried
( )17A. life B. job C. body D. mind
( )18A. successfully B. gradually C. quickly D. hardly
( )19A. with B. for C. like D. as
( )20A. and B. but C. so D. or
( )21A. needs B. asks C. gets D. offers
( )22A. receive B. get C. complete D. stop
( )23A. short B. enough C. good D. long
( )24A. ideas B. abilities C. time D. work
( )25A. helpful B. careful C. useful D. cheerful
In 1812,in a village near Paris,France,a little boy had a terrible accident.He hit himself in the eye with one of his father's sharp tools,and became blind.His name was Louis Braille,and he was only four years old.
He was a clever little boy,and he soon learned to "see" without his eyes.He touched things,or smelled them,or tasted them.His family described things to him.Although he couldn't see people's faces,he learned to recognize their voices.
After his seventh birthday,Louis went to the little school in the village.But there weren't any books for him.His classmates read his lessons to him and his sisters helped him with his homework,He learned his lessons well,but he couldn't learn to read or write.
In 1819,the village priest told Louis Braille's story to the director of a famous school for blind boys.At this school,boys learned math,grammar,geography,history,and music.And they learned to read!
Louis went to the school in Paris in February,1819. He loved his classes and received high grades.He learned to play the piano and to knit hats and sweaters.And he learned to readwith his fingers!
The raisedprint letters in the books at school stood up from the surface of the paper.Louis could feel them with his fingers.He was able to recognize some of them easily,but some of them were more difficult.The letters had to be very large,and sometimes there were only a few letters on a page.The books were huge and heavy.And they were expensive.There were only fourteen books in the school library!
Louis read the three or four books for his class again and again.He tried to think of a better way to make books for blind people.He experimented with new alphabets.
After about three years, Louis invented a system of raised dots.The other students thought Louis's system was wonderful.They were able to read it easily,and they learned to write,too.
Today,there are thousands of Braille books for blind people.
Louis Braille was only fifteen years old when he invented his wonderful system!注释
1. priest n.(基督教的)牧师，神父
2. knit vt.& vi.(knitted或knit,knitting)编织，编结
3. alphabet n.字母表
4. raised adj.凸起的，浮雕的
5. dot n.小圆点
( )1It happened to Louis Braille that he became blind after he hit himself in the eye at the age of 4.
( )2Though he was blind,he soon learned to "see" without his eyes.
( )3The raisedprint letters in the books were easy to recognize before he invented a system of raised dots.
( )4When he went to the little village school,he found it difficult that there weren't any books for him to learn to read and write.
1. C从"they think less clearly,..."中我们可以推测出答案。
3. D作者判断人们睡眠时间是否足够的标准是"If you feel all right,you're probably getting enough sleep."这句话，因此，我们可推测出答案。
1. Bmental意为"心理的、智力的"。例如：a mental patient是"精神病人"的意思。
4. Bset up a school，作"建立一所学校"讲；long for作"渴望得到某物"讲。turn up作"出现，发生"讲；search for作"搜索，寻找"讲。
10. Bperform有"演出"的意思，但在这里作"执行"讲，perform other tasks可译作"做其他的工作"。
11. C从文章意思判断，当残疾人经过训练有能力做某物的时候，就让他们做一些力所能及的工作，这句话也是对上句perform other tasks的说明。
12. C很清楚是用他们自己挣的钱来买东西。out of ones own earnings意为"用某人自己赚得的钱"。
16. Dcarry on sth.意为"继续做某事"，其他三项无此意思。
19. Dwork as意为"担当、担任"。
2. T"...and he soon learned to 'see' without his eyes."这句说明：虽然Louis Braille的眼睛瞎了，但是他通过用手触摸，用鼻子闻或用嘴品尝的方法不久就学会了"看"。
3. F文章第六段说明：在Louis Braille发明布莱耶盲文之前，这种供盲人使用的盲文用起来很不方便。
4. T"But there weren't any books for him."这句已经说明了答案。
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