|http://www.sina.com.cn 2004/03/31 12:18 英语辅导报|
阅读理解，从另一个角度看是读者解读作者逻辑思路的过程，因此有必要对常见的逻辑思路进行总结。从阅读理解测试类型来看，主要分为两类：篇章理解(reading for the main idea)和细节理解(recognizing important facts or details)，后者从历年四级考题来看占80%左右。
1.The author concludes that...
2.It may be inferred from the passage that...
3.According to the passage, what is... ?
4.What is the author's attitude toward... ?
5.In the author's view, ...
6.Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?
Heroes are catalysts for change. They have a vision from the mountaintop. They have the skill and charm to move the masses. They create new possibilities. Without Gandhi, India might still be part of the British Empire. Without Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King, Jr., We might still have segregated(隔离地) buses, restaurants and parks. It may be possible for large scale change to occur without leaders with magnetic personalities, but the pace of change would be slow, the vision uncertain, and the committee meetings endless. (2002,12,28)
The author concludes that historical changes would .
A) be delayed without leaders with inspiring personal qualities
B) not happen without heroes making the necessary sacrifices
C) take place if there were heroes to lead the people
D) produce leaders with attractive personalities
1. By saying..., the author means that ...
2. ... because ... .
4. The example of ...shows that...
6. Although ...
In recent years, Israeli consumers have grown more demanding as they've become wealthier and more world-wise. Foreign travel is a national passion; this summer alone, one in 10 citizens will go abroad. Exposed to higher standards of service elsewhere, Israelis are returning home expecting the same. American firms have also begun arriving in large numbers. Chains such as KFC, McDonald's and Pizza Hut are setting a new standard of customer service, using strict employee training and constant monitoring to ensure the friendliness of frontline staff. Even the American habit of telling departing customers to"Have a nice day"has caught on. 'Let's be nicer', says Itsik Cohen, director of a consulting firm. "Nothing happens without competition."
Privatization, or the threat of it, is a motivation as well. Monopolies that until recently have been free to take their customers for granted now fear what Michael Perry, a marketing professor, calls "the revengeful consumer". When the government opened up competition with Bezaq, the phone company, its international branch lost 40% of its market share, even while offering competitive rates. Says Perry, "People wanted revenge for all the years of bad service." The electric company, whose monopoly may be short-lived, has suddenly stopped requiring users to wait half a day for a repairman. Now, appointments are scheduled to the half hour. The graceless E1 A1 Airlines, which is already at auction, has retrained its employees to emphasize service and is boasting about the results in an ad campaign with the slogan, "you can feel the change in the air." For the first time, praise outnumbers complaints on customer survey sheets. (CET-4, 2002, 12, 28)
1.It may be inferred from the passage that _______.
A) customer service in Israel is now improving
B) wealthy Israeli customers are hard to please
C) the tourist industry has brought chain stores to Israel
D) Israeli customers prefer foreign produce to domestic ones
这道题要求用推理的思路逐个筛选。根据第二段中"The electric company, whose...survey sheets."可以判断A)是正确答案。
2.In the author's views, higher service standards are impossible in Israel _________.
A) if customer complaints go unnoticed by the management
B) unless foreign companies are introduced in greater numbers
C) if there's no competition among companies
D) without strict routine training of employees
3. If someone in Israel today needs a repairman in case of a power failure, ________ .
A) they can have it fixed in no time
B) it's no longer necessary to make an appointment
C) the appointment takes only half a day to make
D) they only have to wait half an hour at most
题目给出了一种假设，要求根据假设选出一种结果。根据第二段中：" The electric company, ... Now, appointments are scheduled to the half hour. " D)为正确答案。
4. The example of E1 A1 Airlines shows that _______ .
A) revengeful customers are a threat to the monopoly of enterprises
B) an ad campaign is a way out for enterprises in financial difficulty
C) a good slogan has great potential for improvement service
D) staff retraining is essential for better service
5. Why did Bezaq's international branch lose 40% of its market share?
A) Because the rates it offered were not competitive enough.
B) Because customers were dissatisfied with its past service.
C) Because the service offered by its competitors was far better.
D) Because it no longer received any support from the government.
这是一道因果关系题。根据第二段中的"its international ... years of bad service"很容易找到答案B)。
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