2015年05月13日15:32   教育专栏  作者:外研社  

  The HerdwickShepherd, James Rebanks, is the latest of several generations tohave tended flocks in the Lake District, but he now has a book and45,000 Twitter followers entranced by the starkly beautiful sceneshe photographs every day. Here he explains what his life is likeand why his documenting of it appeals to so many people。


  People havefarmed sheep and cattle in the English uplands for 4-5,000 years -it is a culture as old as the pyramids。


  The LakeDistrict fells are mostly "common land" - withlegal grazing rightsheld by the graziers (the landlord oftenhas no grazing rights). I have always been involved in the familyfarm and have worked with the sheep since I was very small with mygrandfather. Today we farm about 600 sheep。


  I startedtweeting about three years ago, initially as an experiment to seeif anyone was interested. It quickly becameclear that they were in large numbers. I have written poems andjournalism for more than 15 years, and realised that this was agood way to be creative with pictures and words about our way oflife. We now have 44,000 followers and some recent video clips ofour puppies were viewed 600,000 times。


  The LakeDistrict is the UK's nominated site for World Heritage status in2016-17 - its unique pastoral farming system is a key part of itshistoric significance. It is one of the world's most amazingsurviving historic farming landscapes。


  The children'sauthor Beatrix Potter left 15 farms and4,000 acres inher will to the National Trust and specified the need to protectand sustain the traditional Herdwick farming system. The trust ownsmany thousands of sheep in its landlord's flocks and they are takenon by the tenants of their farms。


  Herdwick sheepare native to the Lake District. There are about 50,000 breedingfemales, but the number is declining due to environmental schemes -95% of them live in a 20-mile radius of each other. They areclassed as "at risk" becauseof the threats to them。


  Herdwick sheepare "hefted", which means they hold without fences to a place onthe fell, or hill or mountain, because they are taught a sense ofbelonging by their mothers in their first summer. This stretchesback countless centuries and has never been broken。


  DNA analysissuggests that Herdwick sheep really did come by boat withthe Vikings athousand or more years ago. Their closest relatives live far to thenorth。



  Becauseflocks graze the fells together a system of lug (ear) and smit(body) marks has evolved to identify thesheep, and these are captured in the Lake District Shepherd's Guidewhich has been published for more than 200 years. Similar systemsexist forreindeer herdersin Norway and Sweden。


  The averageincome of a Lake District fell farmer is £8,500,according to figures from Newcastle University. Lambs are sold fora quarter of their real price in 1970.


  It is a toughway to make a living。



文章关键词: 纽卡斯尔大学

保存  |  打印  |  关闭