|http://www.sina.com.cn 2003/06/17 19:03 新东方教育在线|
If ambition is to be well regarded, the rewards of ambition-wealth, distinction, control over one's destiny-must be deemed worthy of the sacrifices made on ambition's behalf. If the tradition of ambition is to have vitality, it must be widely shared; and it especially must be highly
Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly. Summer homes, European travel ,BMWs-the locations, place names and name brands may change, but such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago. What has happened is that people cannot confess fully to their dreams ,as easily and openly as once they could ,lest they be thought pushing ,acquisitive and vulgar .Instead ,we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles ,which now more than ever seem in ample supply the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home ;the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in three star restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life, whose own children are enrolled in private schools. For such people and many more perhaps not so exceptional, the proper formulation is,"Succeed at all costs but avoid appearing ambitious."
The attacks on ambition are many and come from various angles; its public defenders are few and unimpressive,swheresthey are not extremely unattractive. As a result, the support for ambition as a healthy impulse, a quality to be admired and fixed in the mind of the young, is probably lower than it has ever been in the United States. This does not mean that ambition is at an end, that people no longer feel its stirrings and promptings, but only that, no longer openly honored, it is less openly professed. Consequences follow from this, of course, some of which are that ambition is driven underground, or made sly .Such ,then, is the way things stand: on the left angry critics, on the right stupid supporters, and in the middle, as usual, the majority of earnest people trying to get on in life.
17.It is generally believed that ambition may be well regarded if .
［A］its returns well compensate for the sacrifices
［B］it is rewarded with money, fame and power
［C］its goals are spiritual rather than material
［D］it is shared by the rich and the famous
18.The last sentence of the first paragraph most probably implies that it is .
［A］customary of the educated to discard ambition in words
［B］too late to check ambition once it has been let out
［C］dishonest to deny ambition after the fulfillment of the goal
［D］impractical for the educated to enjoy benefits from ambition
19.Some people do not openly admit they have ambition because .
［A］they think of it as immoral
［B］their pursuits are not fame or wealth
［C］ambition is not closely related to material benefits
［D］they do not want to appear greedy and contemptible
20.From the last paragraph the conclusion can be drawn that ambition should be maintained .
［A］secretly and vigorously
［B］openly and enthusiastically
［C］easily and momentarily
［D］verbally and spiritually
1. well regarded十分看重
[大纲词汇] regard v.(as)把···看作为，把···认为；考虑，注视
[扩充含义] regard v.敬爱，尊敬，看重
[经典例句] She is highly regarded in her profession.
[大纲词汇] reward n.(for)报酬，赏金，奖赏v.(for)酬劳，奖赏；酬谢，报答，奖酬
[经典例句] The rewards of art are not to be measured in money.
[大纲词汇] destiny n.命运；天数，天命
[经典例句] We must put our destiny in our own hands.
[大纲词汇] deem v.认为，深信
[经典例句] He deemed it his duty to take care of the children of his dead brother.
5. on sb's behalf为了··· [大纲词汇] on sb's behalf ( = on behalf of sb. )代表，为了
[经典例句] His wife attended the meeting on his behalf.
[大纲词汇] vital a.生死攸关的，重大的；生命的，生机的
[衍生词汇] vitality n.生命力；生机；活力；生存力，持久力
[经典例句] He is a young man of great vitality.
7. in an odd way以一种奇怪的方式
[大纲词汇] odd a.奇数，单的；奇怪的，古怪的；单只的，不成对的；临时的，不固定的；带零头的，余的
[经典例句] He handle the situation in an odd way.
[扩充词汇] hypocrisy n.伪善，虚伪
[经典例句] His hypocrisy angered all the people present.
[大纲词汇] former a.以前的，在前的
[经典例句] He was formerly a elementary school teacher.
10. in demand所需要的
[扩充词组] in demand所需要的
[经典例句] Oil is in great demand these days.
11. confess to承认
[大纲词汇] confess v.供认，承认，坦白，忏悔
[经典例句] He confessed to the crime he had committed.
[大纲词汇] lest conj.惟恐，免得
[经典例句] She didn't tell them the truth, lest they would get involve.
[大纲词汇] push v.推；催逼，逼迫n.推，推力；促进，推进
[衍生词汇] pushing a.推的；有进取心的；一意孤行的
[经典例句] She is a very nice person except that she is a bit pushing.
[大纲词汇] acquire v.取得，获得；学到
[衍生词汇] acquisitive a.渴望获得的，迫切求取的，贪婪的
[经典例句] Finally his acquisitive instinct got the upper hand.
[扩充词汇] vulgar a.庸俗的，粗俗的；粗鲁的，粗野的
[经典例句] He is a person of vulgar taste.
16. treat to款待
[大纲词汇] treat v.对待；处理；治疗；论述，探讨；款待，请客n.款待，请客
[经典例句] I will treat you all to a little piano specialty of my own.
[大纲词汇] spectacle n.[pl.]眼镜；场面，景象；奇观，壮观
[经典例句] The burning house is a terrible spectacle.
[大纲词汇] ample a.充分的，富裕的；宽敞的，宽大的
[经典例句] The city's many cultural and sports facilities offer ample recreation.
[大纲词汇] materialism n.唯物主义
[大纲词汇] participate v.(in)参与，参加；分享，分担
[衍生词汇] participatory a.参与的，参加的，积极参与的
[经典例句] Participatory art is quite popular with some artists nowadays.
[大纲词汇] phase n.阶段，状态，时期；相，相位
[经典例句] The book covers all phases of Picasso's work.
[大纲词汇] enroll/enrol v.招收；登记；入学
[经典例句] The union enrolls over 100 000 worker in New York.
[大纲词汇] exceptional a.例外的，异常的
[经典例句] He treated his employees with exceptional cruelty.
[大纲词汇] formulate v.构想，规划；系统得阐述
[衍生词汇] formulation n.系统的阐述；规划，构想
[经典例句] He stated his opinion on the formulation of policies.
25. at all costs不惜任何代价
[大纲词汇] at all costs不惜任何代价，无论如何
[经典例句] He vowed to succeed at all costs.
[大纲词汇] angle n.角；角度；方面，观点
[词汇比较] angel a.天使**两词拼写相近，易混淆，注意区分
[经典例句] It will give you a more objective picture if you consider the issue from various angles.
[大纲词汇] probable a.很可能的，大概的；有希望的，可能的
[经典例句] She is probably the best singer in this country.
28. at an end完结
[扩充词组] at an end完结，耗尽
[经典例句] Everything between the lovers were at an end.
[大纲词汇] stir v.搅拌，搅动；动，摇动；激动；轰动；煽动，鼓动
[衍生词汇] stirring a.激动人心的；忙碌的，活跃的n.激励，鼓舞
[经典例句] He tried to suppress the stirrings of visiting her.
[大纲词汇] prompt v.激起，促进，推动
[衍生词汇] prompting n.推动，促进，鼓舞，激励
[经典例句] The book would never have been written without the promptings of my wife.
[扩充词汇] profess v.承认，表示；声称
[经典例句] He professed himself a lover of music.
[大纲词汇] earnest a.热心的，诚挚的
[经典例句] He is an earnest student.
33. get on in life出人头地
[大纲词汇] get on发迹，出人头地
[经典例句] The young man is sure to get on in the world.
[大纲词汇] customary a.习惯的，惯例的
[经典例句] He made his customary visit to his parents every week.
[大纲词汇] discard v.抛弃，丢弃
[经典例句] His friends urge him to discard his bad habits.
[大纲词汇] check v.检查，核对；制止，控制；(凭票)托运或寄存
[经典例句] He tried his best to check his anger.
[大纲词汇] momentary a.瞬间的，片刻的
[经典例句] He paused momentarily to have some water and proceeded.
1. If ambition is to be well regarded, the rewards of ambition---wealth, distinction, control over one's destiny---must be deemed worthy of the sacrifices made on ambition's behalf.
[结构剖析]：此句包含一个if引导的条件状语从句If ambition is to be well regarded，主句的主语是the rewards of ambition，谓语是must be deemed，而wealth, distinction, control over one's destiny既是插入语，又是the rewards的同位语。made on ambition's behalf是the sacrifices的补语。
[阅读重点]：本句中须弄清一些词汇的含义，如distinction声望显赫或出人头地、worthy of对得起或不辜负、on behalf of为了，等等。
2. If the tradition of ambition is to have vitality, it must be widely shared; and it especially must be highly regarded by people who are themselves admired, the educated not least among them.
[结构剖析]：这是一个并列关系的复句。前一个分句又包含由if引导的条件状语，主句中的主语it指代the tradition of ambition。后一分句中who are themselves admired修饰people，the educated not least among them是people的补语。
[阅读重点]：注意people who are themselves admired指自己也受人仰慕的人士，not least义为相当重要。
3. There is a heavy note of hypocrisy in this, a case of closing the barn door after the horses have escaped---with the educated themselves riding on them.
[结构剖析]：a case of closing the barn door after the horses have escaped是前面主句的补语，with the educated themselves riding on them是补语中的伴随状语。
4. Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly. Summer homes, European travel, BMW---the locations, place names and name brands may change, but such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago.
[结构剖析]：此处出现了两个比较级，less interested in success and its signs now than formerly和less in demand today than a decade or two years ago。
[阅读重点]：千万注意两句中的双重否定："do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly"means"seem at least as interested in success and its signs now as formerly，if not more"，后面的do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago也是如此。
5. What has happened is that people cannot confess fully to their dreams, as easily and openly as once they could, lest they be thought pushing, acquisitive and vulgar.
[结构剖析]：what一词指代的是that引导的从句，从句中as easily and openly as once they could又是下一层的状语，此外lest引导带虚拟语气的假设状语从句。
6. Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in three-star restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life, whose own children are enrolled in private schools.
[结构剖析]：本句的主句是we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles。后面有一个非限定性的定语从句，修饰spectacles。在冒号的后面是三个并列的名词性短语，其核心词分别是critic, publisher,和journalist.
[阅读重点]：要理解本句，首先要正确理解be treated to的意思是"被款待，被招待"；因此后面的spectacles就不是"眼镜"，而是"壮观景象"，此处有一定的反讽意味。后面即使不理解其具体含义，大致也应该抓住的是虚伪，说一套做一套的具体事例，从这个角度理解就比较清楚了。
7. The attacks on ambition are many and come from various angles; its public defenders are few and unimpressive,swheresthey are not extremely unattractive.
[结构剖析]：此句是用分号隔开的两个并列句，后面的一个分句中有一个where引导的定语从句，从整体上来修饰its public defenders,只不过先行词用了where。
参考答案：17.A 18.C 19.D 20.B